MHRA Footnotes referencing

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the MHRA Footnotes style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


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MHRA Footnotes referencing style is designed by the Modern Humanities Research Association. Some elements of the standard offer a choice of approaches and/or for some sources, the standard does not provide official guidance. The examples given in this tutorial are based on the University Library's interpretation of the MHRA Style Guide: Third edition 2013. Reprinted with minor corrections 2015.

Referencing in the MHRA Footnotes style is a three-part process:

It is important to be consistent and accurate citing references. The same set of rules should be followed every time you reference, including the layout and punctuation.

Citing in the text, footnotes, and bibliography

Adding a footnote

Each time you introduce an idea, thought or theory in your work that belongs to another person, a footnote number must be added. The general rules for an in-text citation using MHRA Footnote Style are:

  • Footnotes are numbered sequentially throughout the text and must be written in superscript e.g. 1.
  • The footnote number preferably should be placed at the end of a sentence. E.g. the end of a sentence. 2
  • The footnote should appear at the bottom of the page of text in which the footnote number appears
  • All footnotes should start with a capital letter and end with a full stop even if they do not make a full sentence
  • The first time you cite a reference in your footnotes, you must provide full bibliographic details for that reference.
  • After the first time you cite an item, you may refer to the work using just enough information to locate the reference e.g.

3 Katherine Shonfield, Walls Have Feelings – Architecture, Film and the City (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 3.


4 Shonfield, Walls Have Feelings, p.3.


  • The terms ‘loc. cit.’ and ‘op. cit.’ should be avoided as they are too vague to use in this referencing style.
  • If two consecutive footnotes refer to the same work, instead of writing the same details again, you can use ‘Ibid.’ which means ‘in the same place’. The page numbers of the reference must follow this. This should be used sparingly to avoid any possible confusion with another reference.
  • Simple references, such as line numbers to a book already cited in full, can usually be incorporated in the text, normally in parenthesis after quotations.
General rules for the footnote reference
  • The author of an item may be a corporate author.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full; for works with more than three authors, only the first name should be given, followed by ‘and others’.
  • Wherever possible, the details of the reference should be taken from the title page of the publication and not from the front cover, which may be different.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle even if they are not capitalised in the source material.
  • The first word after a colon should be capitalised
  • Any detail of publication that is not included in the book, but can be determined should be included in square brackets e.g. [London]. For details that are not certain, include a question mark in the square brackets e.g. [London?]
  • If any detail of publication cannot be found then the following abbreviations should be used:
    • No place of publication [n.p.]
    • No publisher [n. pub.]
    • No date [n.d.]
  • If the date is an approximate date, circa should be used. It should be abbreviated to c. e.g. c. 1496.
  • Two letter abbreviations of US states should only be used to avoid confusion with another place e.g. Cambridge MA would show that it is Cambridge in Massachusetts rather than Cambridge in the UK. If the name of the US state appears in the name of the publisher then omit the state abbreviation.
  • If the item is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the publication details, this can be done in two ways:
    • If the reprint is by the same publisher: (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication; repr. Year of reprint)
    • If the item is reprinted by a different publisher: Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication; repr. Place of publication for reprint: Publisher of reprint, Year of reprint)
  • Page numbers should be preceded with p. for example, p. 12 if you are referring to a single page. You should use pp. for a page range or a selection of pages e.g. pp. 10-14 or pp. 1, 10, 13
    • When a page range falls within the same hundred, you should write the page range as follows: pp. 101-23, or pp. 101-09
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are not within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1225-1301.
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1061-92.
  • The titles of works of literature occurring within the titles of an item should be italicized or placed within quotation marks - whichever is deemed most suitable, even if it is not expressed as such on the item.
  • If quotation marks are used within the title of an item already enclosed in quotation marks (i.e. for a chapter of a book, journal article etc.), they should be enclosed in double quotation marks, as single quotation marks should have been used to enclose the title itself
  • If a particular page within a chapter or article is to be indicated, a full page span should still be given in the first full citation and a reference to the particular page should be added in rounded brackets, e.g. pp. 31-35 (p. 32)
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

Quoting

A quotation is where you use the exact words of the original author. Try not to over rely on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the subject area being studied.

Short Quotations

Short quotations up to 40 words in length or two lines of verse, should be included in the body of the text enclosed in single quotation marks e.g.

Barton states that the play As You Like It is ‘the fullest and most stable realization of Shakespearean comic form.’1 This can be considered as...

General Rules for Short Quotations
  • If the quotation is at the end of a sentence, the full stop should fall outside the quotation mark. This applies if the quote is integrated within the sentence and is not preceded by any punctuation, e.g.

    Barton states that the play As You Like It is ‘the fullest and most stable realization of Shakespearean comic form’.1 This can be considered as...


  • If the quotation is preceded by punctuation and forms a full sentence the full stop should be included before the quotation mark. Note the comma before the quote below, this means that the full stop will fall within the quotation mark. e.g.

    There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, ‘flavours such as vanillin, which occur naturally in food are called "nature identical", the label does not have to state where it comes from.’2

  • You should use double quotation marks to identify a quotation that falls within a quotation e.g. 'Original quote "Quote within quote" original quote'.

Long Quotations

Long quotations are classed as a quote that is over 40 words, or two lines of verse. This should be presented on a separate paragraph, which is indented from the body of the text, and is not enclosed in quotation marks

Phillips and Havely argue that:

Chaucer's own judiciousness about when and where and how densely to place words of French and Latin origins - many of which still had a more learned or exotic air than modern readers immediately realize - amid familiar words is unrivalled among English poets. He can create a courtly French or Ovidian Latin manner in English without simply piling up French or Latin words.3

This can be taken to mean...


General Rules for Long Quotations
  • Long quotations should end with a full stop even if the original does not. However, if there is a question mark or an exclamation mark then this should be used instead.

Quoting literature

When quoting from literature such as a play or poem, the original spelling and punctuation should be preserved wherever possible. Quotations and lines of verse, should in a short quote, be separated by a spaced upright stroke, e.g.

Tennyson wrote: ‘"The fault was mine, the fault was mine" | Why am I sitting here so stunned and still.’4

In a long quotation, which is indented in a separate paragraph and not enclosed in quotation marks, the lines of a verse should be reproduced with exact lineage of the original e.g.

In his poem Maud, Tennyson wrote the following passage:

‘The fault was mine’ –
Why am I sitting here so stunned and still,
Plucking the harmless wild-flower on the hill? –
It is this guilty hand?  –
And there rises ever a passionate cry
From underneath in tfe darkening land –
What it is, that has been done.
      (Maud, II, 1-7)

Prose quotations from plays should follow the name of the speaker, which should be in small capitals. Stage directions should be italicised and separated from speech by a space. When stage direction occurs within speech, they should be enclosed in parentheses, e.g.

Beckett makes good use of stage direction, as exemplified by the following passage:

She raises her head, gazes front. Long pause. She straightens up, lays her hands flat on the ground, throws her head back and gazes at zenith. Long pause

WINNIE (gazing at zenith) Another heavenly day. (Pause. Head back level, eyes front, pause...)5

Verse quotations from plays are normally centred with the speakers name aligned on the left of the page, e.g.

BOLINGBROKE Patience, good lady; wizards know their times.
Deep night, dark night, the silent of the night,
The time of night when Troy was set on fire,
The time when screech-owls cry, and badogs howl,
And spirits walk, and ghosts break up their graves;
That time best fits the work we have in hand.
Madam, sit you, and fear not.6

Quoting in other languages

Quotations in languages which are not English should be quoted the same as a quote in English, this means using standard quotation marks for MHRA footnote style e.g. ‘Quote’ rather than «Quote» or „Quote“

When quoting a piece of text over 40 words it is advisable to use a long dash, known as an em dash (—) to introduce the quote in French and Russian.


Quoting historical works

Quotations should always be the same as the piece of information you are referring to. However, when referring to early historical works there are some exceptions.

The forms of the letters i and j, u and v, the long s (ſ), the ampersand (&), the Tironian sign (), the tilde, the superior (superscript) letters in contractions, and other abbreviations are normalised in to modern use unless there is a specific reason to keep them e.g. in full bibliographic descriptions

For more information, see section 2.4 in The MHRA Style Guide.


Omissions

If part of the quotation is omitted then this should be indicated using an ellipsis e.g. [...]

It is not necessary to use an ellipsis at the beginning or end of a quotation as almost all quotes are taken from a larger context, and this fact will be presumed


1 Anne Barton, ‘As You Like It and Twelfth Night: Shakespeare's "Sense of an Ending"’, in Essays, Mainly Shakespearean, ed. by Anne Barton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 91-112, (p. 98).


2 Bee Wilson, Swindled: From Poison Sweets to Counterfeit Coffee – The Dark History of the Food Cheats (London: John Murray, 2009). (p.257)


3 Nicholas Rustom Havely and Helen Phillips, Chaucer's Dream Poetry (Harlow: Longman, 1997), p. 43.


4 Alfred Tennyson, 'Maud', in The Poems of Tennyson, ed. by Christopher Ricks, 2nd edn, 3 volumes (London: Longman, 1987), II, pp. 1-2.


5 Samuel Beckett, Happy Days (London: Faber and Faber, 1963), p. 9.


6 William Shakespeare, The Second Part of King Henry VI, ed. by Michael Hattaway (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), I. 4. pp. 14-20.



Paraphrasing is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. Paraphrasing does not mean just changing an odd word, or changing a sentence if the phrasing of the original is still evident. When you paraphrase, you should restate the meaning of the original text in your own words.

When you paraphrase, it will show that you understand the original material and are able to restate the information in your own words. A paraphrase means that you avoid using too many direct quotations, which can distract from the coherence of the argument you are presenting. You can paraphrase to avoid using quotes that have a tenuous link to the argument you are presenting.

Booth and others, give the example of acceptable summarising using Gladwell as their example.1 This is the quote from Gladwell:

Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role of preparation seem to play.2

Below is an unacceptable summary of the above quote because it follows the original too closely

Success seems to be depend on a combination of talent and preparation. However, when psychologists closely examine the gifted and their careers, they discover that innate talent plays a much smaller role than preparation.3

Below is an acceptable summary as the meaning of the original has been restated in the author's own words

As Gladwell observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.4


1 Wayne C. Booth and others, The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016) pp. 208-09.


2 Malcolm Gladwell Outliers: The Story of Success, (New York: Bay Back Books) p. 38.


3 Booth and others The Craft of Research pp. 208-09.


4 Ibid., pp. 208-09.


This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another, and the primary source is not available

Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

If you have only read the later publication, you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention. You cannot have formed your own view or critically appraised whether the secondary author has adequately presented the original material.

You must make it clear to your reader which piece of information you have read whilst giving details of the original e.g.

1 Will. K Kellog ‘Eating Disorders in Literature’, Journal of Cereal Sciences, 5 (1980), p.4, cited in Will K Kellogg, Cereal in Literature (Battle Creek: Toasted Cornflake Company, 1987), p.87.


In the bibliography, it would be cited as:

Will. K Kellog ‘Eating Disorders in Literature’, Journal of Cereal Sciences, 5 (1980), p.2-10, cited in Will K Kellogg, Cereal in Literature (Battle Creek: Toasted Cornflake Company, 1987)

Try not to over-rely on quotations, as this may show a lack of understanding of the information yourself. You should summarise the key points you wish to make in your assignment, in your own words.


The bibliography is given at the end of the assignment; this is a complete list of all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it, with full bibliographic details

It is presented in alphabetical order by surname of the first author listed on the reference. If there is more than one collaborator, the name of the first author is given in reverse in the bibliography, but do not reverse the order for collaborating authors e.g.

  • Footnote
  • 1 Christian Ambrosi and Ariette Ambrosi, La France de 1870 à Nos Jours 7th edition (Paris: Colin, 1997), p.54.


  • Bibliography
  • Ambrosi, Christian and Ariette Ambrosi, La France de 1870 à Nos Jours 7th edition (Paris: Colin, 1997)

  • If a list contains more than one work by the same author a 2 em dash (——) should be substituted for the name after the first appearance and they should be listed in alphabetical order of title e.g.

    • Bryman, Alan, Research Methods and Organization Studies, (London: Routledge, 1995)

      —— Social Research Methods, 5th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)

  • You do not put a full stop at the end of the reference in the bibliography.
  • Anonymous works are listed under their title, you should ignore any initial definite or indefinite article when placing in alphabetical order
  • If you are including two or more items from an edited volume, they should each have their own entry in the bibliography
  • It is essential to maintain consistency of styling throughout a bibliography.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full; for works with more than three authors, only the first name should be given, followed by ’and others‘.
  • The author of an item may be a corporate author.
  • Wherever possible, the details of the reference should be taken from the title page of the publication and not from the front cover, which may be different.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle even if they are not capitalised in the source material.
  • The first word after a colon should be capitalised
  • Any detail of publication that is not included in the book, but can be determined should be included in square brackets e.g. [London]. For details that are not certain, include a question mark in the square brackets e.g. [London?]
  • If any detail of publication cannot be found then the following abbreviations should be used:
    • No place of publication [n.p.]
    • No publisher [n. pub.]
    • No date [n.d.]
  • If the date is an approximate date, circa should be used. It should be abbreviated to c. e.g. c. 1496.
  • Two letter abbreviations of US states should only be used to avoid confusion with another place e.g. Cambridge MA would show that it is Cambridge in Massachusetts rather than Cambridge in the UK. If the name of the US state appears in the name of the publisher then omit the state abbreviation.
  • If the item is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the publication details, this can be done in two ways:
    • If the reprint is by the same publisher: (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication; repr. Year of reprint)
    • If the item is reprinted by a different publisher: Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication; repr. Place of publication for reprint: Publisher of reprint, Year of reprint)
  • Page numbers should be preceded with p. for example, p. 12 if you are referring to a single page. You should use pp. for a page range or a selection of pages e.g. pp. 10-14 or pp. 1, 10, 13
    • When a page range falls within the same hundred, you should write the page range as follows: pp. 101-23, or pp. 101-09
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are not within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1225-1301.
    • When a page range falls within the thousands, and the last three numbers are within the same hundred you should write the page range as follows: pp. 1061-92.
  • The titles of works of literature occurring within the titles of an item should be italicized or placed within quotation marks - whichever is deemed most suitable, even if it is not expressed as such on the item.
  • If quotation marks are used within the title of an item already enclosed in quotation marks (i.e. for a chapter of a book, journal article etc.), they should be enclosed in double quotation marks, as single quotation marks should have been used to enclose the title itself
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

Citing material from non-roman script e.g. Cyrillic, East Asian languages

If you are citing materials from non-roman script you should transliterate the references to roman script. The main reasoning is that you need to alphabetise your bibliography/reference list, and would be unable to do so if they are in a different alphabet. If you are unsure of the correct transliteration, you may want to consult with an expert of the language or an international standard to check.

For footnotes, references in the reference list/bibliography
  • The family name of the author should be written in full roman script. The initials of the author(s) should also be given in roman script.
  • The title of the item (article/book/book chapter, etc.) should be given in roman script using the standard conventions for that language.
  • The title should be translated into English and placed in square brackets immediately after the romanised title. The words in the square brackets should not use italics.
  • The journal title, or title of a book (if it is an edited book), publishers name all need to be given in roman script, but do not need to be translated. If there is an official English translation, then you may use it especially in cases where it provides greater understanding of the subject or publication.
Example in the footnotes

1 M. Terao, Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away] (Tokyo: Fusosha, 1998).

Example in the bibliography

Terao, M. Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away] (Tokyo: Fusosha, 1998)

Materials in roman script

If you are citing materials produced in a language other than English, but in roman script, you may need place a translated title in square brackets after the original title, depending on who the intended audience for your work will be and the language the work is to be written in.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


1 Karl Ashley Smith, Dickens and the Unreal City: Searching for Spiritual Significance in Nineteenth-Century London (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), p. 185.


2 Derrick Chong, Arts Management, 2nd edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010), pp. 131-33.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Chong, Derrick, Arts Management, 2nd edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010)

Smith, Karl Ashley, Dickens and the Unreal City: Searching for Spiritual Significance in Nineteenth-Century London (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


Or

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Author forename surname and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


3 Donald A. Hodges and David C. Sebald, Music in the Human Experience: An Introduction to Music Psychology (New York: Routledge, 2011), p.193.


4 John Glasson, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick, Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 4th edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), pp. 83, 85-87.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Or

Author surname, forename, Author forename surname and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Glasson, John, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick, Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 4th edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012)

Hodges, Donald A. and David C. Sebald, Music in the Human Experience: An Introduction to Music Psychology, (New York: Routledge, 2011)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number First author forename surname and others, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


5 Wayne C. Booth and others, The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016), pp. 74-75.


6 Eberhard Schunck and others, Roof Construction Manual: Pitched Roofs, 4th edn (Basel: Birkhäuser; Munich: Edition Detail, 2002), pp. 264-70.


In the bibliography

First author surname, forename, and others, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Booth, Wayne C., and others, The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016)

Schunck, Eberhard, and others, Roof Construction Manual: Pitched Roofs, 4th edn (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail, 2003)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full, for works by more than three authors the name of the first author should be given followed by ‘and others’.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Chapter author forename surname, ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages of chapter (pages used).


7 Gabor Thomas, ‘The Prehistory of Medieval Farms and Villages: From Saxons to Scandinavians’, in Medieval Rural Settlement: Britain and Ireland, AD 800-1600 ed. by Neil Christie and Paul Stamper (Oxford: Windgather Press, 2012), pp. 43-62 (p. 45).


8 Robert L. Hutchings, ‘The United States, German Unification and European Integration’, in Europe and the End of the Cold War: A Reappraisal, ed. by Frédéric Bozo and others (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 119-32.


In the bibliography

Chapter author surname, forename, ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages of chapter

Thomas, Gabor, ‘The Prehistory of Medieval Farms and Villages: From Saxons to Scandinavians’, in Medieval Rural Settlement: Britain and Ireland, AD 800-1600 ed. by Neil Christie and Paul Stamper (Oxford: Windgather Press, 2012), pp. 43-62

Hutchings, Robert L., ‘The United States, German Unification and European Integration’, in Europe and the End of the Cold War: A Reappraisal, ed. by Frédéric Bozo and others (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 119-32

Notes
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If a particular page within a chapter or article is to be indicated, a full page span should still be given in the first full citation and a reference to the particular page should be added in rounded brackets, e.g. pp. 31-35 (p. 32)

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of image, Type of source, Title of Website, day month year of publication, <URL> [Date accessed].


9 Derek Bridges, Man Cat, digital photograph, Flickr, 22 December 2008, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/derek_b/3145058691/> [accessed 18 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename Title of image, Type of source, Title of Website, day month year of publication, <URL> [Date accessed]

Bridges, Derek, Man Cat, digital photograph, Flickr, 22 December 2008 <https://www.flickr.com/photos/derek_b/3145058691/> [accessed 18 January 2008]


Notes
  • If you include an image in your work, you must ensure that you have relevant permissions to use the image from the rights holders or follow any license conditions stated.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range (pages used).


10 Andrew Scragg, ‘Rudyard Kipling's "The Records of Badalia Herodsfoot": Reassessing Its Significance’, English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 61 (2018), 172-88 (p. 173).


11 Steven J. Emmerich and Andrew K Persily, ‘Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Envelope Air Leakage Database to Support Sustainable Building Design’, International Journal of Ventilation, 12 (2014), 331-43 (pp. 333-34).


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range

Emmerich, Steven J. and Andrew K Persily, ‘Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Envelope Air Leakage Database to Support Sustainable Building Design’, International Journal of Ventilation, 12 (2014), 331-43


Scragg, Andrew, ‘Rudyard Kipling's "The Records of Badalia Herodsfoot": Reassessing Its Significance’, English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 61 (2018), 172-88


Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g 12 rather than XII
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

A DOI refers to a Digital Object Identifier. It provides a stable, persistent link to the article you are referring to. In the MHRA style, a DOI should be presented with http://dx.doi.org/ before the alphanumeric string, regardless of if the article presents the DOI in this way.

In the footnotes

Footnote NumberAuthor forename surname, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range <DOI> (pages used).


12 Rebecca S. Miller ‘Hucklebucking at the Tea Dances: Irish Showbands in Britain 1959-1969’, Popular Music History, 9 (2014), 225-47 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/pomh.v9i3.31855> (pp. 226-27).


13 Katherine B. Aaslestad ‘Serious Work for a New Europe: The Congress of Vienna After Two Hundred Years’, Central European History, 48 (2015), 225-37 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008938915000357>.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range <DOI>

Aaslestad, Katherine B., ‘Serious Work for a New Europe: The Congress of Vienna After Two Hundred Years’, Central European History, 48 (2015), 225-37 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008938915000357>


Miller, Rebecca S. ‘Hucklebucking at the Tea Dances: Irish Showbands in Britain 1959-1969’, Popular Music History, 9 (2014), 225-47 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/pomh.v9i3.31855>


Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g 12 rather than XII
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author Forename Surname, ‘Title of page’, Name of website, Date <URL> [Date accessed].


14 Met Office, ‘Urban Climate Impacts’, Met Office, 2014 <https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/climate-impacts/urban> [accessed 22 January 2018].


15 Michael Rosen, ‘Michael Rosen Biography’, Michael Rosen, [n.d.] <http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/> [accessed 22 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of page’, Name of website, Year <URL> [Date Accessed]

Met Office, ‘Urban Climate Impacts’ Met Office, 2014 <https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/climate-impacts/urban> [accessed 22 January 2018]

Rosen, Michael, ‘Michael Rosen Biography’, Michael Rosen, [n.d.] <http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/> [accessed 22 January 2018]


Notes

No official guidance available for referencing a web page

  • The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Sometimes the author of a web page will be a corporate author, place the name of the corporation in the place of author forename surname. The corporation name will also be used to determine the place in the bibliography.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A, B | C, D, E | F, G, H, I, J, K | L, M, N, O, P, Q | R, S, T, U | V, W, X, Y, Z

A, B

In print

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of work, trans. by translator forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (if applicable) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page range used.


16 Euripides, Hippolytus, trans. by Ben Shaw (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 98.


17 Homer, The Odyssey, trans. by E. V. Rieu (London: GuildPublishers, 1987), p.181.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename Title of work, trans. by translator forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (if applicable) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Euripides, Hippolytus, trans. by Ben Shaw (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Homer, The Odyssey, trans. by. E. V. Rieu (London: GuildPublishers, 1987)

Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of work, trans. by translator forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (if applicable) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page range used. Supplier/Platform/file ebook.


18 William Shakespeare, The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Iuliet: As it Hath Beene ſundrie Times Publikely Acted by the Kings Maiesties Seruants at the Globe, Newly corrected, augmented and amended edn (London: Printed for John Smithwicke, and are to bee ſold at his Shop in Dunstances church-yard, in Fleetestreete vnder the Dyall, c. 1622). Early English Books Online ebook.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of work, trans. by translator forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (if applicable) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page range used. Supplier/Platform/file ebook

Shakespeare, William, The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Iuliet: As it Hath Beene ſundrie Times Publikely Acted by the Kings Maiesties Seruants at the Globe, Newly corrected, augmented and amended edn (London: Printed for John Smithwicke, and are to bee ſold at his Shop in Dunstances church-yard, in Fleetestreete vnder the Dyall, c.1622). Early English Books Online ebook

  • If the full name of the translator is not available you may use their initial as listed on the title page of the item.
  • Quotations should always be the same as the piece of information you are referring to. However, when referring to early historical works there are some exceptions. The forms of the following letters are normalised into modern use:
    • i and j
    • u and v
    • The long s (ſ)
    • The ampersand (&)
    • The Tironian sign ()
    • The tilde
    • The superior (superscript) letters in contractions
    • Other abbreviations
  • To reference a specific part of a play in the footnotes - see Plays.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author or designer forename surname, Name of app (Year), Platform app is available from.


19 campusM, iSheffield (2017), iOS and Android.


In the bibliography

Author or designer surname, forename, Name of app (Year), Platform app is available from

campusM, iSheffield (2017), iOS and Android

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

Work of Art in a Gallery/Museum

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of work, the date of work (if known), medium of composition, dimensions (in cm), Holding institution, town of holding institution.


20 Jean-Germain Drouais, Marius at Minturnae, 1786, oil on canvas, 271 × 365 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris.


21 Matteo Civitali, Tabernacle, c. 1496, carved marble, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of work, the date of work (if known), medium of composition, dimensions (in cm if available), Holding institution, town of holding institution

Civitali, Matteo, Tabernacle, c. 1496, carved marble, Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Drouais, Jean-Germain, Marius at Minturnae, 1786, oil on canvas, 271 × 365cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris

Work of art online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of work, the date of work (if known), medium of composition, dimensions (in cm if available) <URL> [Date Accessed].


22 Steven Keegan, Newby the Dog, 1991, raku fired earthenware <http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O155512/newby-the-dog-sculpture-keegan-steven/> [accessed 23 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of work, the date of work (if known), medium of composition, dimensions (in cm if available) <URL> [Date Accessed]

Keegan, Steven, Newby the Dog, 1991, raku fired earthenware <http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O155512/newby-the-dog-sculpture-keegan-steven/> [accessed 23 January 2018]

Notes
  • The name of the artist, title, date and method of composition should be given as a minimum when referring to a work of art.
  • If the date is an approximate date, circa should be used. It should be abbreviated to c. e.g. c. 1496.
  • When giving dimension, give the units in cm. You should also use a multiplication sign (×) rather than a lower case x.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the Footnotes

Footnote number Author forename surname, ‘Title of blog post’, Title of Blog, (Date) <URL> [accessed Day Month Year].


23 Nick Ripatrazone, ‘W.H. Auden Wrote Poetry for a Beautiful Short Film About Running’, Literary Hub, (2017) <http://lithub.com/w-h-auden-wrote-poetry-for-a-beautiful-short-film-about-running/> [accessed 14 December 2017].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of Blog Post’, Title of Blog (Date) <URL> [accessed Day Month Year]

Ripatrazone, Nick ‘W.H. Auden Wrote Poetry for a Beautiful Short Film About Running’, Literary Hub, (2017) <http://lithub.com/w-h-auden-wrote-poetry-for-a-beautiful-short-film-about-running/> [accessed 14 December 2017]

Notes
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For Blu-Ray see Video - Physical Format.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


24 Karl Ashley Smith, Dickens and the Unreal City: Searching for Spiritual Significance in Nineteenth-Century London (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), p. 185.


25 Derrick Chong, Arts Management, 2nd edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010), pp. 131-33.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Chong, Derrick, Arts Management, 2nd edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010)

Smith, Karl Ashley, Dickens and the Unreal City: Searching for Spiritual Significance in Nineteenth-Century London (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


Or

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Author forename surname and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


26 Donald A. Hodges and David C. Sebald, Music in the Human Experience: An Introduction to Music Psychology, (New York: Routledge, 2011), p.193.


27 John Glasson, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick, Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 4th edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), pp. 83, 85-87.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Or

Author surname, forename, Author forename surname and Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Glasson, John, Riki Therivel and Andrew Chadwick, Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment, 4th edn (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012)

Hodges, Donald A. and David C. Sebald, Music in the Human Experience: An Introduction to Music Psychology, (New York: Routledge, 2011)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number First author forename surname and others, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


28 Wayne C. Booth and others, The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016), pp. 74-75.


29 Eberhard Schunck and others, Roof Construction Manual: Pitched Roofs, 4th edn (Basel: Birkhäuser; Munich: Edition Detail, 2002), pp. 264-70.


In the bibliography

First author surname, forename, and others, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Booth, Wayne C., and others, The Craft of Research, 4th edn (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2016)

Schunck, Eberhard, and others, Roof Construction Manual: Pitched Roofs, 4th edn (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail, 2003)

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The names of up to three authors should be given in full, for works by more than three authors the name of the first author should be given followed by ‘and others’.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Chapter author forename surname, ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages of chapter (pages used).


30 Gabor Thomas, ‘The Prehistory of Medieval Farms and Villages: From Saxons to Scandinavians’, in Medieval Rural Settlement: Britain and Ireland, AD 800-1600 ed. by Neil Christie and Paul Stamper (Oxford: Windgather Press, 2012), pp. 43-62 (p. 45).


31 Robert L. Hutchings, ‘The United States, German Unification and European Integration’, in Europe and the End of the Cold War: A Reappraisal, ed. by Frédéric Bozo and others (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 119-32.


In the bibliography

Chapter author surname, forename, ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages of chapter

Thomas, Gabor, ‘The Prehistory of Medieval Farms and Villages: From Saxons to Scandinavians’, in Medieval Rural Settlement: Britain and Ireland, AD 800-1600 ed. by Neil Christie and Paul Stamper (Oxford: Windgather Press, 2012), pp. 43-62

Hutchings, Robert L., ‘The United States, German Unification and European Integration’, in Europe and the End of the Cold War: A Reappraisal, ed. by Frédéric Bozo and others (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), pp. 119-32

Notes
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • You should capitalise each significant word of the title and subtitle. The first word after a colon should be capitalised.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If a particular page within a chapter or article is to be indicated, a full page span should still be given in the first full citation and a reference to the particular page should be added in rounded brackets, e.g. pp. 31-35 (p. 32)

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Chapter author forename surname, ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages of chapter (pages used). Supplier/Platform/File ebook.


32 Dianne Harris and David L. Hays, ‘On the Use and Misuse of Historical Landscape Views’, in Representing Landscape Architecture, ed. by Marc Treib (Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2008), pp. 22-41. Dawson Era ebook.


33 Robynn J. Stilwell, ‘The Sound is "Out There": Score, Sound Design and Exoticism in The X Files’, in Analyzing Popular Music, ed. by Allan F. Moore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 60-79 (p. 63). Cambridge Core ebook.


In the bibliography

Chapter author surname, forename, ‘Chapter Title’, in Name of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages of chapter. Supplier/Platform/File ebook

Harris, Dianne and David L. Hays, ‘On the Use and Misuse of Historical Landscape Views’, in Representing Landscape Architecture ed. by Marc Treib (Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 2008), pp. 22-41. Dawson Era ebook

Stilwell, Robynn J., ‘The Sound is "Out There": Score, Sound Design and Exoticism in The X Files’, in Analyzing Popular Music, ed. by Allan F. Moore (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 60-79. Cambridge Core ebook

Notes
  • If the ebook is a stable document i.e. a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as different browsers or devices can change the display of the document.
  • If you are referencing a Kindle edition, you would include this information after the page range, e.g. pp. 12-13. Kindle edition.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If a particular page within a chapter or article is to be indicated, a full page span should still be given in the first full citation and a reference to the particular page should be added in rounded brackets, e.g. pp. 31-35 (p. 32)

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Title of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


34 A Companion to Shakespeare's Works, ed. by Richard Dutton and Jean E. Howard, 4 vols (Malden: Blackwell, 2006), III pp. 234-45.


In the bibliography

Editor surname, forename, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Dutton, Richard and Jean E. Howard eds., A Companion to Shakespeare's Works, 4 vols (Malden: Blackwell, 2006)

Notes
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • The title of the chapter should be given as it appears on the contents page
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used. Supplier/Platform/file ebook.


35 Udo Weilacher, Syntax of Landscape: the Landscape Architecture of Peter Latz and Partners, English edn (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2008), p. 25. Dawson Era ebook.


36 Patrick McCarthy, Albert Camus: The Stranger, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 11-12. Cambridge Core ebook.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of book, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication) Supplier/Platform/file ebook

McCarthy, Patrick, Albert Camus: The Stranger, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) Cambridge Core ebook

Weilacher, Udo, Syntax of Landscape: The Landscape Architecture of Peter Latz and Partners, English edn (Basel: Birkhäueser, 2008) Dawson Era ebook

Notes
  • If the ebook is a stable document i.e. a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as different browsers or devices can change the display of the document.
  • If you are referencing a Kindle edition, you would include this information after the page range, e.g. pp. 12-13. Kindle edition.
  • The author/editor's name should be given as it appears on the title page/contents page. The author may be a corporate body or organisation.
  • The title of the book should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

C, D, E

For Chapter in a book see Book - Chapter or Book - Chapter/Section in an electronic book.

For Compact Disc see Music - Album or Music - Album Track.

For Dictionary see Reference Works.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished master's thesis, Name of University, Year), pages used.


75 Paul Bobcombe, ‘An Historical Study of the Development of the Adult Education Unit of the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago for the Period 1944-2004’ (unpublished master's thesis, University of Sheffield, 2005), pp. 12-13.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished master's thesis, Name of University, Year)

Bobcombe, Paul, ‘An Historical Study of the Development of the Adult Education Unit of the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago for the Period 1944-2004’ (unpublished master's thesis, University of Sheffield, 2005)

Notes
  • The US refer to doctoral dissertation and master's thesis whilst the UK refer to doctoral thesis and master's thesis. You should refer to the works according to the country, for example if you are using a US doctoral dissertation, you would refer to it as doctoral dissertation in your work.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For DVD see Video - Physical Format.

For Electronic Book see Book - Electronic or Book - Chapter/Section in an electronic book.

For Electronic Journal see Journal Article with a DOI (Electronic) or Journal Article without a DOI (Electronic).

For Encylopaedia see Reference Works.

Viewed in person

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Title of Exhibition, date of exhibition, holding institution, place of holding institution.


73 Beatles to Bowie: The 60s Exposed, 15 October 2009 - 24 January 2010, National Portrait Gallery, London.


In the bibliography

Title of Exhibition, date of exhibition, holding institution, place of holding institution

Beatles to Bowie: The 60s Exposed, 15 October 2009 - 24 January 2010, National Portrait Gallery, London

Viewed online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Title of Exhibition, date of exhibition, holding institution, place of holding institution <URL> [Date accessed].


74 Beatles to Bowie: The 60s Exposed, 15 October 2009 - 24 January 2010, National Portrait Gallery, London <https://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/exhib.htm> [accessed 31 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Title of Exhibition, date of exhibition, holding institution, place of holding institution <URL> [Date accessed]

Beatles to Bowie: The 60s Exposed, 15 October 2009 - 24 January 2010, National Portrait Gallery, London <https://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/exhib.htm> [accessed 31 January 2018]

Notes

No official guidance for an exhibition

  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Titles of exhibitions should be enclosed in single quotation marks referred to in the text.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

F, G, H, I, J, K

For Facebook see Social Media.

For Film see the Video sections.

For Historical Texts see Ancient or Historical Texts.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of image, Type of source, Title of Website, day month year of publication, <URL> [Date accessed].


37 Derek Bridges, Man Cat, digital photograph, Flickr, 22 December 2008, <https://www.flickr.com/photos/derek_b/3145058691/> [accessed 18 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename Title of image, Type of source, Title of Website, day month year of publication, <URL> [Date accessed]

Bridges, Derek, Man Cat, digital photograph, Flickr, 22 December 2008 <https://www.flickr.com/photos/derek_b/3145058691/> [accessed 18 January 2008]


Notes
  • If you include an image in your work, you must ensure that you have relevant permissions to use the image from the rights holders or follow any license conditions stated.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the Footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range (pages used).


38 Andrew Scragg, ‘Rudyard Kipling's "The Records of Badalia Herodsfoot": Reassessing Its Significance’, English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 61 (2018), 172-88 (p. 173).


39 Steven J. Emmerich and Andrew K Persily, ‘Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Envelope Air Leakage Database to Support Sustainable Building Design’, International Journal of Ventilation, 12 (2014), 331-43 (pp. 333-34).


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range

Emmerich, Steven J. and Andrew K Persily, ‘Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Envelope Air Leakage Database to Support Sustainable Building Design’, International Journal of Ventilation, 12 (2014), 331-43


Scragg, Andrew, ‘Rudyard Kipling's "The Records of Badalia Herodsfoot": Reassessing Its Significance’, English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, 61 (2018), 172-88


Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g 12 rather than XII
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

A DOI refers to a Digital Object Identifier. It provides a stable, persistent link to the article you are referring to. In the MHRA style, a DOI should be presented with http://dx.doi.org/ before the alphanumeric string, regardless of if the article presents the DOI in this way.

In the footnotes

Footnote NumberAuthor forename surname, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range <DOI> (pages used).


40 Rebecca S. Miller ‘Hucklebucking at the Tea Dances: Irish Showbands in Britain 1959-1969’, Popular Music History, 9 (2014), 225-47 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/pomh.v9i3.31855> (pp. 226-27).


41 Katherine B. Aaslestad ‘Serious Work for a New Europe: The Congress of Vienna After Two Hundred Years’, Central European History, 48 (2015), 225-37 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008938915000357>


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range <DOI>

Aaslestad, Katherine B., ‘Serious Work for a New Europe: The Congress of Vienna After Two Hundred Years’, Central European History, 48 (2015), 225-237 <https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008938915000357>


Miller, Rebecca S. ‘Hucklebucking at the Tea Dances: Irish Showbands in Britain 1959-1969’, Popular Music History, 9 (2014), 225-47 <http://dx.doi.org/10.1558/pomh.v9i3.31855>


Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal.
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g 12 rather than XII
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

URL refers to Universal Resource Locator, this is the address that you will see in your web browser. If a journal article does not have a DOI (See Journal Article with a DOI for a description), you should use this guidance. The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume, Issue (Year), page range <URL> [Date accessed] (pages used).


42 Beverly Jerold, ‘Johann Philip Kirnberger and the Bach Chorale Settings’ Bach, 41.1 (2014), 34-43 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/43489889> [accessed 19 January 2018] (p. 35).


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of Article’ Title of Journal, Volume.Issue (Year), page range <URL> [Date accessed]

Jarold, Beverly, ’Johann Philip Kirnberger and the Bach Chorale Settings’ Bach, 41.1 (2014), 34-43 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/43489889> [accessed 19 January 2018]


Notes
  • Only include the issue number/month/season of the journal if every issue starts with page 1.
  • If you do need to refer to an issue of a journal, it would be given as 3.3. This refers to Volume 3 Part 3 of a journal
  • The volume number should be given in Arabic numerals even if the journal which you are citing prefers the use of Roman numerals e.g 12 rather than XII
  • The page range in a journal article is not preceded with pp.
  • Only give the main title of the journal, only give a subheading or place of publication if it will distinguish the journal from another of the same name.
  • Only include the definite or indefinite article at the start of the journal title when the title of the journal title is made up of two words, otherwise omit, e.g. The Drama Review would be included as Drama Review, whilst The Economist would remain unchanged.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For Kindle or other e-reader see Book - electronic.

[Top of page]

L, M, N, O, P, Q

MHRA guidance states that magazines, which are defined as regularly non-scholarly periodicals, should be referenced the same as you would reference a Newspaper Article.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Artist forename surname or Band name, Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference (if available), Year) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl].


43 Prodigy, The Fat of the Land (XL Recordings, XLCD 121, 1997) [on CD].


44 Daryl Hall and John Oates, Big Bam Boom (RCA, AFL1-5309, 1984) [on vinyl].


45 Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (Hollywood Records, 2014) [on MP3].


In the bibliography

Artist surname, forename, or Band name, Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference (if available), Year) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl]

Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (Hollywood Records, 2014) [on MP3]

Hall, Daryl and John Oates, Big Bam Boom (RCA, AFL1-5309, 1984) [on vinyl]

Prodigy, The Fat of the Land (XL Recordings, XLCD 121, 1997) [on CD]

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Artist forename surname or Band name, ‘Title of song’, Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference, Year) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl].


46 The Beatles, ‘Ticket to Ride’, Help! (EMI Records, CDP 7464392, 1965) [on CD].


47 Tammi Terrell and Marvin Gaye, ‘Ain't No Mountain High Enough’, Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (Hollywood Records, 2014) [on MP3].


48 Dan Mangan, ‘Road Regrets’, Nice, Nice, Very Nice (File Under: Music, FUM06, 2009) [on CD].


In the bibliography

Artist surname, forename, or Band name, Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference (if available), Year) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl, on MP3]

Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (Hollywood Records, 2014) [on MP3]

Mangan, Dan, Nice, Nice, Very Nice (File Under: Music, FUM06, 2009) [on CD]

The Beatles, Help! (EMI Records, CDP 7464392, 1965) [on CD]

Notes

If you are referencing more than one track from an album, you will need to include the full details of the track used in the bibliography e.g.

Artist surname, forename or Band name, ‘Title of song’, Title of Album (Recording Company, Album Reference, Year) [medium accessed e.g. on CD, on Vinyl].


Terrell, Tammi and Marvin Gaye, ‘Ain't No Mountain High Enough’, Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol. 1 (Hollywood Records, 2014) [on MP3].

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For Music - Digital Format see Music – Album or Music – Album Track.

Full Score

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Composer forename surname, Title of score, Forename surname of editor/translator [if needed], Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), act/scene number/pages used.


84 Giuseppe Verdi Requiem in Full Score, ed. by Kurt Soldan (Leipzig: C F. Peters [n.d.]; repr. New York: Dover Press, 1978).


In the bibliography

Composer surname, forename Title of score, Forename surname of editor/translator [if needed], Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), act/scene number/pages used.

Verdi, Giuseppe, Requiem in Full Score, ed. by Kurt Soldan (Leipzig: C F. Peters [n.d.]; repr. New York: Dover Press, 1978).

Item from a score

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Composer forename surname, ‘Title of item’, in Name of score, Forename Surname of editor/tranlator/compiler, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication).


85 Frank Loesser, ‘I've Never Been In Love Before’, in The Black Book: 50 Showstoppers, comp. by Peter Evans (London: Wise Publications, 1998), pp. 80-82.


In the bibliography

Composer surname, forename, ‘Title of item’, in Name of score, Forename Surname of editor/tranlator/compiler, Series Statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used

Loesser, Frank ‘I've Never Been In Love Before’, in The Black Book: 50 Showstoppers, comp. by Peter Evans (London: Wise Publications, 1998), pp. 80-82

Notes
  • The name of the composer(s) should be given as it appears on the title page or section.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • The edition should be included if it any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month Year), page number of article.


49 Ian Sample, ‘Briton to Blast Off on Mission of a Lifetime’, Guardian, 15 December 2015, pp. 1, 24-25.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month Year), Section of newspaper (if applicable), page number of article

Sample, Ian, ‘Briton to Blast Off on Mission of a Lifetime’, Guardian, 15 December 2015, pp. 1, 24-25

Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month Year) <URL> [Date accessed].


50 Ian Sample, ‘Tim Peake, Britain's First ESA Astronaut Set for Liftoff from Kazakhstan’, Guardian, 15 December 2015 <https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/dec/14/britain-iss-astronaut-tim-peake-international-space-station> [accessed 26 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month Year) <URL> [Date accessed]

Sample, Ian, ‘Tim Peake, Britain's First ESA Astronaut Set for Liftoff from Kazakhstan’, Guardian, 15 December 2015 <https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/dec/14/britain-iss-astronaut-tim-peake-international-space-station> [accessed 26 January 2018]


Newspaper Database e.g. Nexis

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month Year) <URL of database homepage> [Date accessed].


51 Ian Sample, ‘Tim Peake, Britain's First ISS Astronaut, Set for Liftoff from Kazakhstan: Principia Mission to International Space Station Opens UK to Serious Involvement in Human Spaceflight’, Guardian, 15 December 2015 <https://www.nexis.com> [accessed 26 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Date of article (Day Month Year) <URL> [Date accessed]

Sample, Ian, ‘Tim Peake, Britain's First ISS Astronaut, Set for Liftoff from Kazakhstan: Principia Mission to International Space Station Opens UK to Serious Involvement in Human Spaceflight’, Guardian, 15 December 2015 <https://www.nexis.com> [accessed 26 January 2018]


Notes
  • When citing English newspapers, ‘The’ or ‘A’ are normally omitted from the title. The only newspaper this does not apply to is The Times.
  • The month should always be cited in English even if you are referencing a foreign language newspaper.
  • For online articles, do not infer page, line or paragraph number unless they are marked on the article, as these may differ depending on browser or device used.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, series statement/Edition statement/Volume statement (Place of publication: publisher, Year). Act (in Roman Numerals). Scene (in Arabic numbers). Line numbers.


78 William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. by Nicholas Brooke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), IV. 1. 1-38.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, series statement/Edition statement/Volume statement (Place of publication: publisher, Year).

Shakespeare, William, The Tragedy of Macbeth, ed. by Nicholas Brooke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990)


Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of book, ed. by Editor forename surname, series statement/Edition statement/Volume statement (Place of publication: publisher, Year). Act (in Roman Numerals). Scene (in Arabic numbers). Line numbers. Supplier/Platform/file ebook.


79 William Shakespeare, Macbeth: A Tregedy. Written by William Shakspeare, with the additions set to muſic by Mr. Locke and Dr. Arne. Marked with the Variations in the Manager's Book at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. (London: Printed for C. Bathurst, W. and A. Strathan, J.F. & C. Rivington, L. Davis, W. Lowdnes, W. Owen & Son, B. White & Son, T. Longman, B. Law, C. Dilly, T. Cadell, T. Payne & Son, J. Robson, G.G.J. & J. Robsinson, T. Davies, T. Bowles, R. Baldwin, H.L. Gardener, J. Nicholls, J. Bew, W. Cater, J. Murray, W. Stuart, S. Hayes, W. Bent, S. Bladon, W. Fox, & E. Newbery, 1785). IV. 1. 1-38. Eighteenth century collections online (ECCO) ebook.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of book ed. by Editor forename surname, series statement/Edition statement/Volume statement (Place of publication: publisher, Year). Supplier/Platform/file ebook

Shakespeare, William, Macbeth: A Tregedy. Written by William Shakspeare, with the additions set to muſic by Mr. Locke and Dr. Arne. Marked with the Variations in the Manager's Book at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane. (London: Printed for C. Bathurst, W. and A. Strathan, J.F. & C. Rivington, L. Davis, W. Lowdnes, W. Owen & Son, B. White & Son, T. Longman, B. Law, C. Dilly, T. Cadell, T. Payne & Son, J. Robson, G.G.J. & J. Robsinson, T. Davies, T. Bowles, R. Baldwin, H.L. Gardener, J. Nicholls, J. Bew, W. Cater, J. Murray, W. Stuart, S. Hayes, W. Bent, S. Bladon, W. Fox, & E. Newbery, 1785). Eighteenth century collections online (ECCO) ebook


Notes
  • The Scene, Act, and line numbers should be separated with full stops (.) rather than commas (,).
  • Small capital Roman numerals should be used for the numbers of acts, the number of books, and major subdivisions.
  • Scenes, cantos, chapters use Arabic numerals.
  • For later references, you will be able to use the name of the play along with scene, act and line information.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

R, S, T, U

In the footnotes

Footnote Number ‘Title of Episode if necessary’, Name of series, Radio Station of Broadcast, Day Month and Year of Original Broadcast, Time of broadcast if necessary <URL> [Date accessed].


70 ‘Charlie Brooker’, Desert Island Discs, BBC Radio 4, 12 January 2018, 9:00am <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09kx840> [accessed 31 January 2018].


71 Today, BBC Radio 4, 29 January 2018, 6:00am <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/108B0705> [accessed 31 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Name of series, Radio Station of Broadcast, Day Month and Year of Original Broadcast, Time of broadcast if necessary <URL> [Date accessed].

Desert Island Discs, BBC Radio 4, 12 January 2018, 9:00am <http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09kx840> [accessed 31 January 2018]

Today, BBC Radio 4, 29 January 2018, 6:00am <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/108B0705> [accessed 31 January 2018]

Notes
  • If you refer to more than one episode of a series, each will need a separate entry in the bibliography detailing the episode details and title (if necessary) in quotation marks.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

Reference Work Entry – In print

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author of entry forename, surname, ‘Title of Entry’, in Name of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication), pages used.


80 James Stevens Curl, ‘Viaduct’, in Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architechture, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 819.


In the bibliography

Author of entry surname, forename, ‘Title of Entry’, in Name of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname Series statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication).

Stevens Curl, James, Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Reference Work Entry – Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author of entry forename, surname, ‘Title of Entry’, in Name of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname. Series statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page range (if available). Supplier/Platform/File ebook.


81 Michael Kennedy and Joyce Bourne Kennedy, ‘Grunge’, in The Oxford Dictionary of Music, ed. by Tim Rutherford-Johnson, 6th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). Oxford Reference Premium Collection ebook.


In the bibliography

Author of entry surname, forename, ‘Title of Entry’, in Name of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname. Series statement/Edition Statement/Volume Statement (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page range (if available). Supplier/Platform/File ebook.

Kennedy, Michael, and Joyce Bourne Kennedy, ‘Grunge’, in The Oxford Dictionary of Music, ed. by Tim Rutherford-Johnson, 6th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Oxford Reference Premium Collection ebook

Reference Work Full – In print

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series/Edition/Volume statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication).


82 The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, ed. by H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, 4 vols (London: Macmillan, 1986).


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname(s), Series/Edition/Volume statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication)

Hitchcock, H. Wiley, and Stanley Sadie eds. The New Grove Dictionary of American Music 4 vols (London: Macmillan, 1986)

Reference Work Full – Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series/Edition/Volume statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication). Supplier/Platform/File ebook


83 Michael Kennedy, and Joyce Bourne Kennedy, The Oxford Dictionary of Music, ed. by Tim Rutherford-Johnson, 6th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Oxford Reference Premium Collection ebook.


In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename, Title of reference work, ed. by Editor forename surname, Series/Edition/Volume statement (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication) Supplier/Platform/File ebook

Kennedy, Michael and Joyce Bourne Kennedy, The Oxford Dictionary of Music, ed. by Tim Rutherford-Johnson, 6th edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Oxford Reference Premium Collection ebook


Notes
  • In the bibliography, list the first author by surname, forename. List other authors by forename surname.
  • Some reference items will only have an editor, if this were the case, you would place the editor’s name(s) at the start of the reference before the title when citing in your bibliography.
  • If the item is a translated item, you would place the name of the translator after the title and use the abbreviation trans.
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are accessing an item online and the material is not paginated, then you would include the location of cited materials in rounded brackets after the date you accessed the materials. If the material had 16 paragraphs and the material you cited was on paragraph 2, you would write (para. 2 of 16).

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In print

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname OR Corporate Author, Title of report, Report number (if available) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), pages used.


33 United Nations Settlement Programme, Financing Urban Shelter: Global Report on Human Settlements 2005 (London: Earthscan, 2005) pp. 169-70.


In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename, OR Corporate Author, Title of report, Report number (if available) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), pages used.

United Nations Settlement Programme, Financing Urban Shelter: Global Report on Human Settlements 2005 (London: Earthscan, 2005) pp. 169-70

Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author/editor forename surname OR Corporate Author, Title of report, Report number (if available) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), pages used (if available) <URL> [Date accessed] (Location of cited materials).


40 National Trust, Impact Review 2017/18 (Wiltshire: National Trust, 2018), p.7 <https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/documents/impact-review-201718.pdf> [Accessed 20 September 2018].


In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, forename OR Corporate Author, Title of report, Report number (if available) (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), pages used (if available) <URL> [Date accessed] (Location of cited materials)

National Trust, Impact Review 2017/18 (Wiltshire: National Trust, 2018), p.7 <https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/documents/impact-review-201718.pdf> [Accessed 20 September 2018]

Notes
  • The author's name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be omitted if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information.
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given e.g 2 vols
  • Foreign items that are more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A report which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If you are accessing an item online and the material is not paginated, then you would include the location of cited materials in rounded brackets after the date you accessed the materials. If the material had 16 paragraphs and the material you cited was on paragraph 2, you would write (para. 2 of 16).

For Sculpture see Art in a gallery, museum, or online.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname,‘Title of tweet/Facebook post’, (format, username, date).


52 Uni of Sheffield Library, ‘Got a library question? Check out our FAQs, pop into our sites or chat online! libraryhelp.shef.ac.uk’ (tweet, @UniSheffieldLib, 3 January 2018).


53 Tim Peake, ‘A good day in the office today - spacewalk training with @Explornaut. Thanks to the amazing divers at @esa who keep us safe.’ (tweet, @astro_timpeake, 5 December 2017).


54 The University of Sheffield, ‘Our campus, seen from St. George's Terrace. #shefunilife (Photo by ES KWON)’ (Facebook post, 6 January 2017).


In the bibliography

Author Surname, Forename, ‘Title of tweet/facebook post’ (format, username, date)

Peake, Tim, ‘A good day in the office today - spacewalk training with @Explornaut. Thanks to the amazing divers at @esa who keep us safe.’ (tweet, @astro_timpeake, 5 December 2017)

The University of Sheffield, ‘Our campus, seen from St. George's Terrace. #shefunilife (Photo by ES KWON)’ (Facebook post, 6 January 2017)

Uni of Sheffield Library, ‘Got a library question? Check out our FAQs, pop into our sites or chat online! libraryhelp.shef.ac.uk’ (tweet, @UniSheffieldLib, 3 January 2018)


Notes

No official guidance available for referencing social media in footnotes and the bibliography.

  • You should keep the spelling and punctuation used in the social media post.
  • Short social media postings should be given in full, normally up to 40 words.
  • If a post is a retweet, make sure to find the original post rather than reference the retweet
  • Do not use shortened URLs from services such as bit.ly or Tinyurl, even if quoted in a tweet, replace with the original URL.
  • If the name of the creator is not available, you may use the screen name of the creator instead
  • Be careful when citing any personal communication that has taken place online. You will need the written consent of anyone who was involved in the communications that have taken place even if you were the recipient of the message, and you may not name the individuals in your work. This includes non-public postings such as:
    • Direct messages
    • Posts on someone's Facebook wall
    • Posts to members only groups
    • Online conversations

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For Television see Video sections.

In print

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Name of University, Year), pages used.


72 Iris E Ferrier, ‘A Comparative Study on Theme Positioned Poetic Devices in Effective School Essays in English and German’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield, 2011).


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of thesis’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Name of University, Year)

Ferrier, Iris E., ‘A Comparative Study on Theme Positioned Poetic Devices in Effective School Essays in English and German’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield, 2011)

Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, ‘Title of dissertation’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Name of University, Year) pages used, in Database of Name of Database <URL> [Date accessed].


73 Zullhazmi Sayuti, ‘Montane South African Grasslands as a New Planting as a New Planting Design Form in Urban Greenspace’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield, 2013) p. 111, in Database of White Rose eThesis Online <http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/> [accessed 2 February 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename ‘Title of dissertation’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, Name of University, Year) in Database of Name of Database <URL> [Date accessed]

Sayuti, Zullhamzi, ‘Montane South African Grasslands as a New Planting as a New Planting Design Form in Urban Greenspace’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield, 2013) in Database of White Rose eThesis Online <http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/> [accessed 2 February 2018]

Notes
  • The US refer to doctoral dissertation and master's thesis whilst the UK refer to doctoral thesis and master's thesis. You should refer to the works according to the country, for example if you are using a US doctoral dissertation, you would refer to it as doctoral dissertation in your work.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when including a URL in your reference.
  • If the electronic version is a stable document, such as a PDF, you will be able to refer to page numbers you have used in your work. If the item is not a stable document, but the item has numbered sections or numbered paragraphs, you will be able to use these to direct the reader to the information used in your work e.g. para. 2 of 15 would refer to the second paragraph of 15. Do not infer line number if they are not provided as the browser may change the display of the document.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In Print

In the Footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of item, trans. by Translator Forename Surname (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), pages used.


76 Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, trans. by. Louise Maude and Aylmer Maude, intro. by W. Gareth Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995; repr. 2008), p. 358.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of item, trans. by Translator Forename Surname (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication)

Tolstoy, Leo, Anna Karenina, trans. by Louise Maude and Aylmer Maude, intro. by W. Gareth Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995; repr. 2008)

Online

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author forename surname, Title of item, trans. by Translator Forename Surname (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication), pages used. Supplier/Platform/file ebook.


77 Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, trans. by. Louise Maude and Aylmer Maude, intro. by W. Gareth Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 385. Dawson Era ebook.


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of item, trans. by Translator Forename Surname (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of Publication) Supplier/Platform/file ebook

Tolstoy, Leo, Anna Karenina, trans. by Louise Maude and Aylmer Maude, intro. by W. Gareth Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995) Dawson Era ebook

Notes
  • The author/editor/translator's etc. name should be given as it appears on the title page.
  • Translated by is abbreviated to trans. by
  • Introduction by is abbreviated to intro. by
  • The title should be given as it appears on the title page of the item.
  • A colon should separate the title and subtitle, even if it is different to the grammar on the title page.
  • A series statement needs to be included if the item is part of a numbered series. However, it may be left out if it is an unnumbered series and the title does not provide important information about the item.
  • The edition of the item should be included in your footnote/reference if it is any edition other than the first e.g. 2nd edn, rev. edn
  • If the work is more than one volume, the number of volumes should be given in your footnote/reference e.g 2 vols
  • Items which are not written in English and consist of more than one volume should use the abbreviation vol. (Note the full stop at the end).
  • A book which has more than one place of publication, with a different publisher in each place, should have both places and publishers referred to in the reference (Basel: Birkäuser; Munich: Edition Detail).
  • If the item is a reprint, you will need to acknowledge this in the publication details, this can be done in two ways:
    • If the reprint is by the same publisher: (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication; repr. Year of reprint)
    • If the item is printed by a different publisher: Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication; repr. Place of publication for reprint: Publisher of reprint, Year of reprint)

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For transliteration of items see Citing and referencing foreign language materials in Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography

For Twitter see Social Media.

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V, W, X, Y, Z

Episode of a TV Programme

In the footnotes

Footnote Number ‘Title of Episode’, Name of Series, Channel of Broadcast, Day Month Year of broadcast, time of broadcast <Full URL> [Date accessed].


55 ‘Bernie Clifton’s Dressing Room’, Inside No. 9, BBC2, 9 January 2018, 10.00pm <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/106A1D6B> [accessed 10 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Title of TV series, Channel of Broadcast, Day Month Year of broadcast, time of broadcast <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Inside No. 9, BBC2, 9 January 2018, 10.00pm <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/106A1D6B> [accessed 10 January 2018]

TV Programme

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Title of programme, Channel of Broadcast, Day Month Year of broadcast, time of broadcast <Full URL> [Date accessed].


56 Newsnight, BBC2, 4 January 2018, 10:30pm <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/105C0FEA> [accessed 10 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Title of TV series, Channel of Broadcast, Day Month Year of broadcast, time of broadcast <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Newsnight, BBC2, 4 January 2018, 10:30pm, <https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/105C0FEA> [accessed 10 January 2018]

Notes
  • If you are referencing more than one episode from a television series, you will need to include the full details of the episodes in the bibliography, which are referenced in the footnotes.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

Film/Motion Picture

In the footnotes

Footnote number Title of film/motion picture, Directed by Forename Surname (Distributor, date).


57 Star Wars: The Last Jedi, dir. by. Rian Johnson (Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 2017).


In the bibliography

Director surname, forename, dir., Title of film/motion picture (Distributor, date)

Johnson, Rian, dir., Star Wars: The Last Jedi (Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, 2017)

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

Film/Motion Picture

In the footnotes

Footnote number Title of film, Director forename surname (Distributor, Year) [on DVD or on Blu-Ray].


58 Hamlet, dir. by Kenneth Branagh (Sony Pictures Entertainment, 1996) [on DVD].


59 The Martian, dir. by Ridley Scott (20th Century Fox, 2015) [on Blu-Ray].


In the bibliography

Director surname, forename, dir., Title of film (Distributor, Year) [on DVD or on Blu-Ray]

Branagh, Kenneth, dir., Hamlet (Sony Pictures Entertainment, 1996) [on DVD]

Scott, Ridley, dir., The Martian (20th Century Fox, 2015) [on Blu-Ray]

TV programme

In the footnotes

Footnote number ‘Title of Episode’, Name of series (Distribution Company, Year) [on DVD or on Blu-Ray].


60 ‘The Door’, Game of Thrones: The Complete Sixth Series (Warner Home Video/HBO, 2016) [on Blu-Ray].


In the bibliography

Name of Series (Distributor, Year) [on DVD or on Blu-Ray]

Game of Thrones: The Complete Sixth Series (Warner Home Video/HBO, 2016) [on Blu-Ray]

Notes
  • If you are referencing more than one episode from a television series, you will need to include the full details of the episodes in the bibliography, which are referenced in the footnotes.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author Forename Surname, Title of video, Type of source, Title of website, Date of publication, <URL> [Date accessed].


61 The University of Sheffield, The Arts Tower Paternoster, online video recording, YouTube, 21 December 2017, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYbyaj4G9FM> [accessed 15 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, Title of video, Type of Source, Title of website, Date of publication, <URL> [Date Accessed]

The University of Sheffield, The Arts Tower Paternoster, online video recording, YouTube, 21 December 2017, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYbyaj4G9FM> [accessed 15 January 2018]

Notes
  • If the name of the creator is not available, you can use the screen name.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

Note

If you have used a streaming service such as iPlayer to view something recently broadcast on television, use the example given for Video - Database (e.g. Box of Broadcasts). If you are using the streaming service to watch a box set and it has no date of broadcast (such as Television programmes available on 4OD marketed as Box Sets where all episodes are available without a date of broadcast) follow the examples below.

Film/Motion picture

In the footnotes

Footnote number Title of film, Director forename surname (Distributor, Year) <Full URL> [Date accessed].


62 La La Land, dir. by Damien Chazelle (Lionsgate, 2016) <https://www.netflix.com/watch/80095365> [accessed 11 January 2018].


63 A Hard Day's Night, dir. by Alun Owen (United Artists Corporation, 1964) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b0074q9m/a-hard-days-night> [Accessed 11 January 2017].


In the bibliography

Director surname, forename, dir., Title of film (Distributor, Year) <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Chazelle, Damien, dir., La La Land (Lionsgate, 2016) <https://www.netflix.com/watch/80095365> [accessed 11 January 2018]

Owen, Alun, dir., A Hard Day's Night (United Artists Corporation, 1964) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b0074q9m/a-hard-days-night> [accessed 11 January 2018]


Episode of a TV Programme

In the footnotes

Footnote number ‘Title of Episode’, Name of series (Distribution Company, Year) <Full URL> [Date accessed].


64 ‘Chapter Six: The Spy’, Stranger Things 2 (Netflix, 2017) <https://www.netflix.com/title/80057281> [accessed 27 October 2017].


65 ‘The Red Door’, The IT Crowd (Channel 4 Television Corporation, 2006) <http://www.channel4.com/programmes/the-it-crowd/on-demand/35925-004> [accessed 12 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Name of Series (Distributor, Year) <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Stranger Things 2 (Netflix, 2017) <https://www.netflix.com/title/80057281> [accessed 27 October 2017]

The IT Crowd (Channel 4 Television Corporation, 2006) <http://www.channel4.com/programmes/the-it-crowd/on-demand/35925-004> [accessed 12 January 2018]

TV Programme

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Name of TV programme (Distribution Company, Year) <Full URL> [Date accessed].


66 Anjelica Houston on James Joyce: A Shout in the Street (BBC; Arte; RTE, 2017) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b09mb966/anjelica-huston-on-james-joyce-a-shout-in-the-street> [accessed 22 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Name of TV programme (Distribution Company, Year) <Full URL> [Date accessed]

Anjelica Houston on James Joyce: A Shout in the Street (BBC; Arte; RTE, 2017) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b09mb966/anjelica-huston-on-james-joyce-a-shout-in-the-street> [accessed 22 January 2018]


Notes
  • If you are referencing more than one episode from a television series, you will need to include the full details of the episodes in the bibliography, which are referenced in the footnotes.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For Vinyl Record see Music - Album or Music - Album Track.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author Forename Surname, ‘Title of page’, Name of website, Year <URL> [Date accessed].


67 Met Office, ‘Urban Climate Impacts’, Met Office, 2014 <https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/climate-impacts/urban> [accessed 22 January 2018].


68 Michael Rosen, ‘Michael Rosen Biography’, Michael Rosen, [n.d.] <http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/> [accessed 22 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author surname, forename, ‘Title of page’, Name of website <URL> [Date Accessed]

Met Office, ‘Urban Climate Impacts’, Met Office, 2014 <https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/climate-impacts/urban> [accessed 22 January 2018]

Rosen, Michael, ‘Michael Rosen Biography’, Michael Rosen, [n.d.] <http://www.michaelrosen.co.uk/for-adults-biography/> [accessed 22 January 2018]


Notes

No official guidance available for referencing a web page

  • The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Sometimes the author of a web page will be a corporate author, place the name of the corporation in the place of author forename surname. The corporation name will be used to determine the place in the bibliography.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

In the footnotes

Footnote Number Author of website forename surname, Name of website, Year <URL> [Date accessed].


69 Poetry Archive, The Poetry Archive, 2016 <https://www.poetryarchive.org/> [accessed 22 January 2018].


In the bibliography

Author of website forename surname, Name of website, Year <URL> [Date accessed]

Poetry Archive, The Poetry Archive, 2016 <https://www.poetryarchive.org/> [accessed 22 January 2018]


Notes

No official guidance for referencing a website

  • The MHRA Style Guide recommends that you look for the shortest form of a URL without long query strings, which is normally a question mark (?) followed by many numbers and letters.
  • Do not use URL shorteners such as bitly, tinyurl etc. when quoting the URL in a reference.
  • Sometimes the author of a web page will be a corporate author, place the name of the corporation in the place of author forename surname. The corporation name will be used to determine the place in the bibliography.

For more information about footnotes, referencing multiple authors, and creating a bibliography, see Citing in the text, footnotes and bibliography and click on the relevant section.

For YouTube see Video - Sharing website.

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