APA referencing 7th edition

Reference list vs. Bibliography

In the APA style, references are listed at the end of your work, and are organised alphabetically by the surname of the author.

A reference list includes all works that have been referred to in the assignment.

A bibliography includes all the material consulted in writing your assignment even if you have not cited them within it.

Many people use these terms interchangeably so, if you are unsure about whether you need to include a bibliography as well as a reference list, ask your tutor.


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There are many different styles of referencing that are all referred to as 'Harvard'. This tutorial details the Harvard style of referencing based upon the advice given in the book "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed." (American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association.) This is the style of APA that the University Library supports.

The American Psychological Association maintains the APA Style Blog which gives advice on a generic APA reference with examples for new item types when the need arises.

Referencing in the APA style is a two-part process:

It is important to be consistent and accurate when citing references. The same set of rules should be followed every time you reference, including the layout and punctuation. Punctuation should be used to clearly separate each element of a reference.

Creating a citation and reference list

APA is an author/date method. Sources are cited within the body of the text by giving the name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication. All other details about the publication are given in the list of references or bibliography at the end.

Rules about citing

For multiple authors follow the table:

In text citation for multiple authors
No. of Authors First use of the citation Second and further uses of the citation
One author or creator Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname, Year) Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname, Year)
Two authors or creators Author Surname and Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) Author Surname and Author Surname (Year) or (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
Three or more authors or creators First Author Surname et al. (Year) or (First Author Surname et al., Year) First Author Surname et al. (Year) or (First Author Surname et al., Year)

  • If the author(s) name appears in the text as part of the body of the assignment, then the year will follow in rounded brackets e.g. According to Smith (2015)...

  • If the author(s) name does not appear in the body of the text then the name and date should appear in rounded brackets separated by a comma, e.g. (Smith, 2015).

  • If more than one of your citations is written by the same author and have the same year of publication, then use a lower case letter after the publication date. The letter should be assigned in the reference list by the order of your references, e.g. (Smith, 2015a) (Smith, 2015b).

  • Some authors have the same surname, if this occurs you should add the initial(s) of the author in all of your citations even if the year of publication is different, e.g. (Williams, A., 2009), (Williams, J., 2010).

  • You may need to cite more than one piece of work for some ideas. If this is the case you would list the author(s) in alphabetical order (by the first author of each piece of work) with a semicolon separating the citations, e.g. (Jones, 2014; Smith, 2015).

  • For items where the author is a corporation, association or government agency:
    • If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long or well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in square brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).
    • If the corporation/association/government agency has a short name, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016).

  • Some works may not have an identifiable author; to cite this in the text you would use the first few words of the title and the year.
    • For chapters in books, web pages and journal articles use quotation marks around the title e.g. ("Title", 1909).
    • For the title of a book, periodical or report you would use italics for the first few words of the title, e.g. (Title, 1909).

  • When a work has been designated Anonymous, you would cite this in the text as Anonymous followed by the date, e.g. (Anonymous, 2008).

  • If no date of publication or copyright can be found, use n.d. for "no date", e.g. (Wilkinson, n.d.).


Direct quotations

If you use someone else's work exactly as it appears in the original source, you must always provide the author, year of publication, and page citation (or paragraph for non-paginated sources such as websites).


Quotation less than 40 words

If the quotation is less than 40 words, then you can include it in the body of the text, enclosed in quotation marks with the source identified immediately after.

If you have not introduced the quotation in the sentence before, then you would follow the quotation with full details of the citation (Author(s), date, and page).

If the author and date have been used in the sentence introducing the quotation, then you follow the quotation with the page number in rounded brackets.

If the quotation ends your sentence, include the rounded brackets in the sentence with a full stop after the closed bracket.

There is still a labelling issue when it comes to flavourings in food, it is noted that, "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-incidental’. The label does not have to state where it comes from" (Wilson, 2009, p. 257).

If the quotation makes up part of a sentence, then end the quotation with double quotation marks (") with the source immediately after, and continue on with the sentence.

Wilson (2009) notes that "flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from" (p. 257) meaning that the...


More than 40 words

If the quotation is more than 40 words, then it should be presented in a new paragraph which is indented from the normal margin. The quote should be preceded by a colon.

If the author and date have been used in the sentence introducing the quotation, then you would follow the quotation with the page number in rounded brackets e.g.

Wilson (2009) has looked at food flavourings in the UK and has made the following observation about vanilla:

In Britain flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla-substitute called ethyl-vanillin (often used in chocolate).
(p. 257)


If you have not introduced the quotation in the sentence before, then you would follow the quotation with full details of the citation (Author(s), Date, Page) e.g.

The use of food flavourings in the UK has been controversial, it has been noted that:

In Britain flavours such as vanillin which occur naturally in food are called ‘nature-identical’. The label does not have to state where it comes from. A flavouring only counts as fully ‘artificial’ if it does not occur in nature at all, as is the case with another, stronger vanilla-substitute called ethyl-vanillin (often used in chocolate).
(Wilson, 2009, p. 257)

Wilson, B. (2009). Swindled: from poison sweets to counterfeit coffee - the dark history of the food cheats. John Murray.


Omitting material from quotations

If you are omitting materials from an original source, use three dots [...] to indicate this, e.g.

Canter and Canter (1992) state that students come to the classroom with "their own needs, their own past experiences and ... their preconceptions of who you are, what your limits will be" (p. 49). It is important to manage the expectations of students effectively.

Tips on quoting when page numbers are not present

If the item you are quoting does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2020, p. 273) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".

Summarising

Summarising is putting someone else's ideas into your own words. It does not mean changing the odd word / sentence or rearranging the sentence. The summary should clearly be a restatement of the meaning of the original text. Be sure to cite and reference when you are summarising someone else's work, e.g.:

Booth et al. (2016, pp.208-209) give the example of acceptable summarising using Gladwell (2008) as their example:

This this the original quote from Gladwell (2008, p.38):

"Achievement is talent plus preparation. The problem with this view is that the closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role preparation seems to play."

Below is an unacceptable summary of the above quote because it follows the original too closely:

Success seems to depend on a combination of talent and preparation. However, when psychologists closely example the gifted and their careers, they discover that innate talent plays a much smaller role than preparation (Gladwell 2008, p.38).

The next is an example of an acceptable summary as the meaning of the original has been restated in the author's own words:

As Gladwell (2008, p.38) observes, summarising studies on the highly successful, we tend to overestimate the role of talent and underestimate that of preparation.

Tips on citing when page numbers are not present

If the item you are citing does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2020, p. 273) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".

Reference List

Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G., Williams, J.M., Bizup, J., and Fitzgerald, W.T., (2016). The craft of research. 4th ed. University of Chicago Press.

Gladwell, M., (2008). Outliers: The story of success. Back Bay Books.

Secondary Referencing

This is when you reference one author who is referring to the work of another, and the primary source is not available. Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.

If you have only read the latter publication you are accepting someone else's opinion and interpretation of the author's original intention. You cannot have formed your own view or critically appraised whether the secondary author has adequately presented the original material.

You must make it clear to your reader which author you have read whilst giving details of the original.

Use ‘as cited in’ if the author has cited the work of another, e.g. (Ecott, 2002 as cited in Wilson, 2009).

If the author has directly quoted from an original piece of work then you would use ‘as quoted in’ e.g. (Cannon, 1989 as quoted in Wilson, 2009, p. 269).

A reference list should be presented at the end of your work as it will allow readers to follow up your references. Your reference list should be presented in alphabetical order by surname, and if the same author is listed more than once these references should be in chronological order.


Rules about referencing

For multiple authors follow the table:

In the reference list for multiple authors
 No. of Authors  In the reference list
 One  Author Surname, Initial(s)
 Two to Twenty  Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Include all authors, with the final author listed after an ampersand)
 Twenty One or more  Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., . . . Final Author Surname, Initial(s). (Include the first nineteen authors, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name)

  • Authors names should be given in the following format: Surname, Initial(s), e.g. Smith, G. A.

  • When citing a chapter in a book, the initials of the editor(s) are presented before the surname e.g. G. A. Smith, (see Chapter in a book for more examples).

  • Multiple references by the same author are listed chronologically.

  • References relating to authors with the same last name should be ordered by their initial(s), e.g. Williams, A. (2009), Williams, J. (2010).

  • References with the same first author and different subsequent authors are arranged alphabetically, using the second author to determine the order. If the first and second author are the same, use the third author to determine order, e.g.
    • Smith, A., & Jones, B. (2005).
    • Smith, A., & Wilkinson, C. (2004)
    or
    • Smith, A., Jones, N., & Adams, B. (2005)
    • Smith, A., Jones, B., & Wilkinson, A. (2005)

  • References by the same author, with the same date should be ordered by title (excluding ‘A’ and ‘The’). Add a lower case letter to the date in order to differentiate. This should match your citation in the text, e.g. Smith, A (2015a), Smith, A. (2015b).

  • If you cannot identify an author, and it has not been designated Anonymous, use the title in the place you would put the author, and add to the list in alphabetical order e.g. Title. (Date).

  • When the author is a corporation, association, or government agency, you will need to put the full name rather than the abbreviation used in the text, e.g. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015).

  • Capitalise the first word of the title in the reference list (unless otherwise stated), and capitalise the first word after a colon or dash in the title.

Citing material from non-Roman script e.g. Cyrillic, East Asian languages

If you are citing materials from non-Roman script, you should transliterate the references to Roman script. The main reasoning in the APA style is that you need to alphabetise your reference list, and would be unable to do so if they are in a different alphabet. If you are unsure of the correct transliteration, you may want to consult with an expert of the language or an international standard to check.

For in-text citations
  • Spell out the author's family name, or corporate name, in Roman script. If you are unsure of the correct spelling, you may want to consult with an expert of the language to check.
For references in the reference list/bibliography
  • The family name of the author should be written in full Roman script. The initials of the author(s) should also be given in Roman script.
  • The title of the item (article/book/book chapter, etc.) should be given in Roman script using the standard conventions for that language.
  • The title should be translated into English and placed in square brackets immediately after the Romanised title. The words in the square brackets should not use italics.
  • The journal title, or title of a book (if it is an edited book), and publisher's name all need to be given in Roman script, but do not need to be translated. If there is an official English translation then you may use it, especially in cases where it provides greater understanding of the subject or publication.
Example

Terao, M. (1998). Denai kugi wa suterareru [The nail that does not stick up may be thrown away]. Fusosha.

Materials in Roman script

If you are citing materials produced in a language other than English, but in Roman script, you may need to place a translated title in square brackets after the original title, depending on who the intended audience for your work will be.

Frequently referenced items

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2012) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to...(Bryman, 2012).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Two Authors

For an in-text citation in your work for two authors, you would use both surnames when you cite the resource:

Crisp and Turner (2014) note that being watched by others in a public event...
Nervousness can be caused by...(Crisp & Turner, 2014).

Three or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Crisp et al. (1996) note that making a weight biography could assist with the recovery...
...a balanced diet will allow the nutritional balance to re-establish (Crisp et al., 1996).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2014). Essential social psychology (3rd ed.). SAGE.

Crisp, A. H., Joughin, N., Halek, C., & Bowyer, C. (1996). Anorexia nervosa: The wish to change (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., & Lawes, S. (1999). Teaching and training in post-compulsory education. Open University Press.

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames in your citation:

Mak (2016)...
...(Mak, 2016)

Harris and Middleton (1995)...
...(Harris & Middleton, 1995)

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Gruber et al. (2014)...
...(Gruber et al., 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor of book Initial(s). Editor of book Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first., Page numbers). Publisher.

Mak, A. S. (2016). Twists and turns: Forging a career as a psychology academic in Australia. In A. Komisarof & Z. Hua (Eds.), Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life and scholarship in globalizing universities. (pp. 39-52). Nova Science Publishers.

Harris, P. R., & Middleton, W. (1995). Social cognition and health behaviour. In D. Messer & C. Meldrum (Eds.), Psychology for nurses and health care professionals. (pp. 107-130). Pearson Education.

Gruber, D., Hansen, L., Soaper, K., & Kivisto, A. J. (2014). The role of shame in general, intimate and sexual violence perception. In K. G. Lockhart (Ed.), Psychology of shame: New research. (pp. 36-62). Nova Science Publishers.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors and editors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For images that you have inserted into your work:

Image with no attribution required

You do not need to provide a reference, in-text citation or copyright attribution for a stock image or clip art image that specifies "no attribution required". Instead, provide a figure number, e.g. Figure 1, followed by a title for the image, and insert the image below the title. Provide a figure note below the image if required.

See the APA Style's Clip art or stock image references for more information.

Image that requires an attribution

If the image license states that attribution is required, provide a copyright attribution in the figure note and include a reference in your reference list. You do not need to add the copyright attribution in the reference list.

In the text

Provide a figure number, e.g. Figure 3, followed by the title of the image, e.g. Ladybower plughole, and insert the image below the title. Underneath the image, add your figure note, ending with the copyright attribution, e.g.

Note. From Title of image [Format description], by Author surname, Initial(s). or Username, Year, Source (URL). Copyright attribution.

Note. From Ladybower plughole [Photograph], by andy_c, 2008, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922). CC BY 2.0.

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). or Username. (Date). Title of item [Format Description]. Source. URL

andy_c. (2008). Ladybower Plughole [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

See the APA Style's Clip art or stock image references for more information.

For images you are referencing but have not inserted into your work:

Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

andy_c (2008)...
...(andy_c, 2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). or Username. (Date). Title of item [Format Description]. Source. URL

andy_c. (2008). Ladybower Plughole [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

ren_7 (2010)...
...(ren_7, 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. (Date). [Title] [Format Description]. Source. URL

ren_7. (2010). [Beach Huts] [Digital image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

Murawski (ca. 2008)...
...(Murawski, ca.2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. [Estimated date]. Title [Format Description]. Source. URL

Murawski, D.A. (ca. 2008). Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [Digital image]. National Geographic. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

If both the author's username and real name are known, provide the real name followed by the username in square brackets, e.g. Author Surname, Initial(s). [Username].

If the date is not presented with the image but you know the date from another source, then you would include this in square brackets.

If the date is not presented with the image but you can estimate it, use ca. before the date in brackets e.g. (ca. 2008)

If a date cannot be ascertained, you would use n.d. for 'no date' in brackets e.g. (n.d.)

For more information see the How to attribute images tutorial.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Wang and Kim (2010) looked at the competency of counselling professionals...
...Multicultural skills should be considered when...(Wang & Kim, 2010)

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al.":

Macizo et al. (2011) identified cognitive patterns...
Linguistic information...(Macizo et al., 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Number), Page range.

Wang, S., & Kim, B. S. K. (2010). Therapist multicultural competence, Asian American participants' cultural values, and counseling process. Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 915-921.

Macizo, M., Herrera, A., Romàn, P., & Martin, M. C. (2011). Proficiency in a second language influences the processing of number words. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 915-921.

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

If you are unsure if the article you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: APA style - What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? which gives an explanation of the identifier.

In the text

One or two authors

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Carr and Steele (2010) note that negative stereotypes associated with women in the workplace can...
...the decisions made about people is heavily influenced by our stereotypical views (Carr & Steele, 2010)

Three or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Lane et al. (2016) identified that cultural differences may have some effect...
...Flexibility of communication has been demonstrated in young children (Lane et al., 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Issue), Page range. doi

Carr, P. B., & Steele, C. M. (2010). Stereotype threat affects financial decision making. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1411-1416. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610384146

Lane, J. D., Evans, E. M., Brink, K. A., & Wellman, H.M. (2016). Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000061

Loernic, A. G., Meuret, A. E., Twohig, M. P., Rosenfield, D., Bluett, E. J., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Response rates for CBT for anxiety disorders: Need for standardized criteria. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.004

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames/corporate authors in your citation:

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME] (2017)...
...(Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME], (2017)

Johnsen and Fitzpatrick (2007)...
...(Johnsen & Fitzpatrick, 2007).

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015)...
...(Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015).

Mintel (2017)...
...(Mintel, 2017).

Snowdon (2017)...
...(Snowdon, 2017)

Wohlers Associates (2018)...
...(Wohlers Associates, 2018).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, if the corporation has a recognised abbreviation, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

FAME (2017)...
...(FAME, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). Publisher.

Johnsen, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2007). The impact of enforcement on street users in England. The Policy Press.

Wohlers Associates. (2018). Wohlers Report 2018: Additive manufacturing and 3D printing state of the industry: Annual worldwide progress report.

Online/Electronic

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). URL

If you need to add a date of retrieval, add "Retrieved (date), from" before the URL, as in this first example:

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME]. (2017). Forgemasters International Limited. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from https://fame4.bvdinfo.com/version-2017105/fame/

Joseph Rowntree Foundation. (2015). Building sustainable homes. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/building-sustainable-homes

Mintel. (2017). Fashion Online - UK - June 2017. http://academic.mintel.com/display/793379/

Snowdon, C. (2017). Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? (IEA Discussions Paper No. 82). https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf

Notes

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long or well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in square brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

When the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher from the reference (as in the Wohlers Associates example).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Use the webpages and websites category if there is no other reference category that fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g. journal, blog, conference proceedings) other than the website itself (APA, 2020, p. 350).

In the text

For an in-text citation, you should cite the author. If the author is an organisation, you should use the name of the organisation the first time you cite the resource with the recognised abbreviation next to it in square brackets:

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE] (2016)...
...(Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE], 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

HEFCE (2016)...
(HEFCE, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list
Webpage on a news website

Author Surname, Initials. (Date Year, Month day). Title of work. Site name. URL

Binding, L. (2020, July 21). River Thames has higher density of microplastics than other major European rivers. Sky News. https://news.sky.com/story/river-thames-has-higher-density-of-microplastics-than-other-major-european-rivers-12033067

Webpage on a website with a group author

Name of organisation. (Date Year, Month day). Title of webpage. Site name (if not the same as the Name of organisation). URL

World Health Organisation. (2018, May 18). Assistive technology. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology

Webpage on a website with a government agency group author

Author Surname, Initials or Organisation. (Date Year, Month day). Title of webpage. Name of government agency (if not the same as the Author or Organisation). URL

Department of Health and Social Care. (2017, January 20). Health, exercise, nutrition for the really young (HENRY). https://www.gov.uk/government/case-studies/health-exercise-nutrition-for-the-really-young-henry

Webpage on a website with an individual author

Author Surname, Initials. (Date Year, Month day). Title of work. Site name. URL

Austin, B. (2018, November 19). Memory Cafés Connect Families. Medium. https://medium.com/everylibrary/memory-caf%C3%A9s-connect-families-825df125e9a6

Notes

Provide as specific a date as possible, e.g. Year, Month day or Year, Month, or Year if you can only find the year.

Include the retrieval date if the material is likely to change over time, or if there is no date on the web page.

Locating the date of a website and webpages can be difficult, the page you are looking at may tell you at the beginning or the end of the page or document. Do not use the footer that says ‘Last modified’ as it may not be the update for the page or document. Do not use the copyright date from a webpage or website footer as this may not indicate when the content was published. If you cannot locate a date, use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’.

If the author and the site name are the same, e.g. in the "Webpage on a website with a group author" example, omit the site name from the reference as it is the same as the author, World Health Organisation.

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long or well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in square brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

If the corporation/association/government agency has a short named, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016)

For more information about in-text citation, referencing multiple authors and abbreviations, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

For a full list of items see Alphabetical list of items

Alphabetical list of items

Jump to: A, B | C, D, E | F, G, H | I, J, K | L, M, N, O, P, Q | R, S, T, U | V, W, X, Y, Z

A, B

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource:

Homer (ca. 800 B.C.E./1996)...
...(Homer, ca. 800 B.C.E./1996).

Thucydides (ca. 430 B.C.E./1954)...
...(Thucydides, ca. 430 B.C.E./1954).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initials. (Date of Publication). Title (Initial(s) of translator Surname of translator, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published date)

Homer. (1996). The Odyssey (R. Fagles, Trans.). Penguin Putnam Inc. (Original work published ca. 800 B.C.E.)

Thucydides. (1954). History of the Peloponnesian war (M. I. Finley, Trans.). Penguin Books. (Original work published ca. 430 B.C.E.)

Notes

Include both the date that the work was originally published followed by the copyright date of the version you have used in the citation within the text, and the date of the original publication in parenthesis at the end of the reference. If the original date is approximate, use "ca." for circa before the date.

B.C.E. in the above examples stands for Before the Common Era, e.g. (ca. 800 B.C.E.) and means that the work is generally thought to have been written around 800 years before the start of the Western calendar.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

campusM (2018)...
...(campusM, 2018)

In the bibliography/reference list

Rightsholder Surname, Initial(s). (Year or version). Title of software or program (version number) [Mobile app]. Source. URL

campusM. (2018). iSheffield (7.0.0) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.ombiel.campusm.sheffield&hl=en_GB

Notes

The rightsholder may be a corporation or company.

Capitalise the rightsholder and name of app as they are written in the app store.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Work of art in a gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

da Vinci (ca. 1503)...
...(da Vinci, ca. 1503)

Gainsborough (ca. 1750)...
...(Gainsborough, ca. 1750).

Solomon (1894)...
...(Solomon, 1894).

In the bibliography/reference list

Viewed in person

Artist surname, Artist initial(s). (Year) Title [Medium]. Holding institution, Location. URL (if available)

da Vinci, L. (ca. 1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France. http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mona-lisa-portrait-lisa-gherardini-wife-francesco-del-giocondo

Gainsborough, T. (ca. 1750). Mr and Mrs Andrews [Painting]. The National Gallery, London, England. https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/thomas-gainsborough-mr-and-mrs-andrews

Work of art viewed online

Artist surname, Artist initial(s). (Year). Title [Medium]. Holding institution, Location. URL

da Vinci, L. (ca. 1503). Mona Lisa [Painting]. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France. http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mona-lisa-portrait-lisa-gherardini-wife-francesco-del-giocondo

Gainsborough, T. (ca. 1750). Mr and Mrs Andrews [Painting]. The National Gallery, London, England. https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/thomas-gainsborough-mr-and-mrs-andrews

Solomon, S. (1894). The Moon and Sleep [Painting]. Tate Gallery, London, England. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/solomon-the-moon-and-sleep-t01719

Notes

Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, digital art, crafts, and installations.

Circa, abbreviated to "ca." is used in the date element of the reference when the exact year that the artwork was produced is not known, but it is generally thought to be approximately that particular year, e.g. (ca. 1503).

Always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title. e.g. a general description such as “[Painting]” or a more specific description such as “[Oil painting]” or “[Oil on canvas]”.

If you viewed the artwork on display rather than online, still provide a URL to the artwork on the museum or gallery's website if there is one available.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Lee (2010)...
(Lee, 2010)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date in full). Title of blog post. Name of blog. URL

Lee, C. (2010, November 18). How to cite something you found on a website in APA style. APA Style Blog. http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/how-to-cite-something-you-found-on-a-website-in-apa-style.html

Notes

Add the full date for a blog post.

The author of the blog may use a screen name, if this is the case then use the screen name in place of the author.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bryman (2012) recommends...
Quantitative data is more suited to the study due to...(Bryman, 2012).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Two Authors

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource:

Crisp and Turner (2014) note that being watched by others in a public event...
Nervousness can be caused by...(Crisp & Turner, 2014).

Three or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Crisp et al. (1996) note that making a weight biography could assist with the recovery...
...a balanced diet will allow the nutritional balance to re-establish (Crisp et al., 1996).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Crisp, R. J., & Turner, R. N. (2014). Essential social psychology (3rd ed.). SAGE.

Crisp, A. H., Joughin, N., Halek, C., & Bowyer, C. (1996). Anorexia nervosa: The wish to change (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunhill, R., Hammersley, M., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., & Lawes, S. (1999). Teaching and training in post-compulsory education. Open University Press.

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames in your citation:

Mak (2016)...
...(Mak, 2016)

Harris and Middleton (1995)...
...(Harris & Middleton, 1995)

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Gruber et al. (2014)...
...(Gruber et al., 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor of book Initial(s). Editor of book Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first., Page numbers). Publisher.

Mak, A. S. (2016). Twists and turns: forging a career as a psychology academic in Australia. In A. Komisarof & Z. Hua (Eds.), Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life and scholarship in globalizing universities. (pp. 39-52). Nova Science Publishers.

Harris, P. R., & Middleton, W. (1995). Social cognition and health behaviour. In D. Messer & C. Meldrum (Eds.), Psychology for nurses and health care professionals. (pp. 107-130). Pearson Education.

Gruber, D., Hansen, L., Soaper, K., & Kivisto, A. J. (2014). The role of shame in general, intimate and sexual violence perception. In K. G. Lockhart (Ed.), Psychology of shame: New research. (pp. 36-62). Nova Science Publishers.

Notes

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors and editors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Diesendruck (2007)...
...(Diesendruck, 2007)

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Hesse-Biber et al. (2015)...
...(Hesse-Biber et al., 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Section author(s) Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor Initial(s). Editor Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first., page range). Publisher. doi (if available)

Ebook without a doi

Diesendruck, G. (2007). Mechanisms of word learning. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of language development. (pp. 257-276). John Wiley & Sons.

Ebook with a doi

Southern, E. M. (2001). DNA microarrays. In Rampal, J. B. (Ed.). Methods in molecular biology: Vol. 170. DNA arrays: methods and protocols. (pp. 1-15). Humana Press. https://doi-org.sheffield.idm.oclc.org/10.1385/1-59259-234-1:1

Notes

The format (e.g. Ebook), platform (e.g. Ebook Central) or device (e.g. Kindle) that you access the ebook chapter or section from is not included in the reference.

If the ebook does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2010, pp. 171-172) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click the relevant section.

In print

In the text

Mueser (1998)...
...(Mueser 1998).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter/Section author(s) Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter/section. In Volume Editor Initial(s). Volume Editor Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first, page range). Publisher.

Mueser, K.T. (1998). Social skills training and problem solving. In P. Salkovis (Ed.), Comprehensive Clinical Psychology: Volume 6. Adults: clinical formulation & treatment (pp.183-202). Elsevier Science Ltd.

Online

In the text

Dandlani (2016)...
...(Dandlani 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Chapter/Section author(s) Surname(s), Initial(s). (Year). Title of chapter/section. In Volume Editor Initial(s). Volume Editor Surname (Ed(s).), Title of book (Edition if not first, page range). URL or doi

Dandlani, P. (2016). Social justice concepts and public libraries: a case study. In U. Gorham, N. Greene Taylor, and P.T. Jaeger (Eds.), Advances in Librarianship: Volume 41. Perspectives on libraries as institutions of human rights and social justice (pp. 15-18). https://doi.org/10.1108/S0065-283020160000041002

Notes

If the volume is part of a larger series, separately titled series or collection, you will need to treat the series and volume as a two part title. For example, in the above example the series of books is called ‘Advances in Librarianship’. The volume references is ‘Volume 41. Perspectives on libraries as institutions of human rights and social justice’.

If the item is part of a series, and the subtitles change regularly, each word of the title series should have a capital letter, and the subtitle in lower-case.

You do not need to include series editors in the reference, only the volume editors are included.

If using a DOI to show the location of the item, the DOI should be given as a full URL e.g. https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxxxx

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all surnames when you cite the resource:

Matheson (2015)...
...(Matheson, 2015).

Komisarof & Hua (2016)...
...(Komisarof & Hua, 2016).

In the reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Matheson, S. (Ed.). (2015). An introduction to the study of education (4th ed.). Routledge.

Komisarof, A., & Hua, Z. (Eds.). (2016). Crossing boundaries and weaving intercultural work, life, and scholarship in globalizing universities. Routledge.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Anderson 2009...
...(Anderson, 2009)

Simons and Richardson (2013)...
...(Simons & Richardson, 2013).

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Stewart et al. (2018)...
...(Stewart et al., 2018)

In the bibliography/reference list

Ebook with a doi

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher. doi

Anderson, K. J. (2009). Benign bigotry: The psychology of subtle prejudice. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511802560

Stewart, F., Ranis, G., & Samman, E. (2018). Advancing human development: Theory and practice. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198794455.001.0001

Ebook without a doi (e.g. from an academic research database or ebook platform)

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Simons, N., & Richardson, J. (2013). New content in digital repositories : The changing research landscape. Elsevier Science & Technology.

Ebook with a URL

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work (Edition if not first). Publisher. URL

Dewey, J. (1922). Human nature and conduct : An introduction to social psychology. Henry Holt and Company. https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/41386

Notes

The format (e.g. Ebook), platform (e.g. Ebook Central) or device (e.g. Kindle) that you access the ebook from is not included in the reference.

For an ebook without a doi it is not necessary to provide the database information that you retrieved the book from in the reference, e.g. Elsevier Science Direct, as the path you used to retrieve the book is not relevant.

See the APA Style's DOIs and URLs page for more information on when to include them in references.

If the ebook does not have pagination the American Psychological Association [APA] (2010, pp. 171-172) suggest the following information for direct quotations and paraphrases:

  • The number of the paragraph if provided, or you can count the number of paragraphs from the start of the document. This should be abbreviated to para. e.g. (Smith, 2017, para. 17).
  • A section heading and a paragraph number for within that section e.g. (Jones, 2017, Discussions, para. 4)
  • If the section heading is too long, you can shorten the title in quotation marks, with a paragraph number, e.g. (Williams, 2016, "Social Obligations", para. 6). In this example, the full heading would have been "Social Obligations of Those In Power and How They Influence People".

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

C, D, E

Cochrane Review

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Ashworth et al. (2020)...
...(Ashworth et al., 2020)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of work. Database name. doi

Ashworth, D. C., Maule, S. P., Stewart, F., Nathan, H. L., Shennan, A. H., & Chappell, L. C. (2020). Setting and techniques for monitoring blood pressure during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012739.pub2

To reference a work with 20 authors or more, see the Journal Article with many authors section.

Clinical practice guideline with a group author

In the text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2020)...
...(National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2020)

World Health Organization (2011)...
...(World Health Organization, 2011)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, if the corporation has a recognised abbreviation, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

NICE (2020)...
...(NICE, 2020)

WHO (2011)...
...(WHO, 2011)

In the bibliography/reference list

Group author name. (Year). Title of guideline (Guideline reference if available). Website name if different from the author. URL

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2020). Supporting adult carers (NICE Guideline NG150). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng150

World Health Organization. (2011). WHO recommendations for prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Guideline Central. https://www.guidelinecentral.com/share/summary/52d561feb536b#section-society

Drug information

In the text

Accord-UK Ltd. (2019)...
...(Accord-UK Ltd, 2019)

In the bibliography/reference list

Manufacturer's name. (Year, Month day). Name of drug [Drug information]. Website name if different from the author. URL

Accord-UK Ltd. (2019, December 5). Pamsvax XL 400 micrograms capsules [Drug information]. electronic medicines compendium. https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/3152/smpc

Mobile app reference work

In the text

BNF Publications. (2020)...
...(BNF Publications, 2020)

In the bibliography/reference list

App author. (Year). Name of app (Edition if included) (Version) [Mobile app]. Name of website or app store downloaded from. URL

BNF Publications. (2020). BNF and BNFC (Version 2.1.37). Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.pharmpress.bnf&hl=en_GB

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

It’s important to acknowledge the source of code just like you would acknowledge the source of any work that is not your own. Referencing correctly will help to distinguish your work from others, give credit to the original author and allow anyone to identify the source.

See Referencing Code for guidance. You will need to adapt the guidance to your referencing style.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Armstrong (2014)...
...(Armstrong, 2014).

Ziegler (1997)...
...(Ziegler, 1997)

Dafnis (2015)...
...(Dafnis, 2015)

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Kwon et al. (2011)...
...(Kwon et al., 2011).

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of paper [Description]. In Editor of book Initial(s). Surname (Ed(s).). Title of book (Volume (if needed), page numbers). Publisher.

Armstrong, M. E. (2014). Child comprehension of internationally-encoded disbelief [Paper presentation]. In W. Orman, & M. J. Valleau (Eds.). Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University conference on language development. (Vol. 1, pp. 25-38). Cascadilla Press.

Zeigler, S. (1997). Berlin: east meets west - urban musical styles in Georgia [Paper presentation]. In D. Stockmann, & J. H. Koudal (Eds.). Historical studies on folk and traditional music: ICTM study group on historical sources of folk music: conference report, Copenhagen 24-28 April 1995 (pp. 155-166). Danish Folklaw Archive, Museum Tusculanum Press.

Online/Electronic

Author of chapter Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of paper [Description]. In Editor of book Initial(s). Surname (Ed(s).). Title of book (Volume (if needed), Page numbers). Publisher. URL or doi

Dafnis, B. (2015). The innovation diffusion paradox in undergraduate information technology student outcomes [Paper presentation]. In A. Settle, & T. Steinbach (Chair). SIGITE'15: Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM conference on Information Technology Education (pp. 15-20). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2808006.2808036

Kwon, H-J., Kwon, H-O. & Hong, K-S. (2011). Personalized emotional prediction method for real-life objects based on collaborative filtering [Paper presentation]. In D. Harris (Ed.). Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 6781. Engineering psychology and cognitive ergonomics: 9th international conference, EPCE 2011, held as part of HCI international 2011 Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011 Proceedings (pp. 45-52). Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21741-8

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Bazela et al. (2014)...
...(Bazela et al., 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

From a poster session

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month). Title of poster. [Poster session]. Name of conference, place of conference.

Bazela, C., Grant, V., & Tucker, A. (2014, April). History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students. [Poster session]. LILAC, Sheffield, England.

From a conference website

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year, Month). Title of poster. [Poster session]. Name of conference, place of conference. URL

Bazela, C., Grant, V., & Tucker, A. (2014, April). History of medicine 2.0: using creative media to enhance information literacy teaching for 1st year medical students. [Poster session]. LILAC, Sheffield, England. https://www.slideshare.net/infolit_group/bazela-grant-tucker-poster

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

From a conference session

Presenter Surname, Initial(s). (Date) Title of presentation. [Conference presentation]. Title of conference, Location.

Grant, V., Haworth, A., & Hubenova, E. (2018, April 4-April 6). Facilitating a programme level approach to information and digital literacy (IDL). The University of Sheffield’s IDL model, framework, animation and offer. Findings of our participatory action research project. [Conference presentation]. LILAC 2018, Sheffield, England.

From a conference website

Presenter Surname, Initial(s). (Date) Title of presentation. [Conference presentation]. Title of conference, Location. URL or doi

Grant, V., Haworth, A., & Hubenova, E. (2018, April 4-April 6). Facilitating a programme level approach to information and digital literacy (IDL). The University of Sheffield’s IDL model, framework, animation and offer. Findings of our participatory action research project. [Conference presentation]. LILAC 2018, Sheffield, England. https://www.slideshare.net/infolit_group/facilitating-a-programme-level-approach-to-information-and-digital-literacy-idl-the-university-of-sheffields-idl-model-framework-animation-and-offer-findings-of-our-participatory-action-research-project-grant-haworth-hubenova

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Editor of book Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Date). Title of book. Publisher.

Orman, W & Valleau, M. J. (Eds.). (2014). Proceedings of the 38th annual Boston University conference on language development. (Vol. 1). Cascadilla Press.

Stockmann, D. & Koudal, J. H. (Eds.). (1997). Historical studies on folk and traditional music: ICTM study group on historical sources of folk music: conference report, Copenhagen 24-28 April 1995. Danish Folklaw Archive, Museum Tusculanum Press.

Online/Electronic

Editor of book Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Date) Title of book. Publisher. URL or doi

Harris, D. (Ed.). (2011). Engineering psychology and cognitive ergonomics: 9th international conference, EPCE 2011, held as part of HCI international 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, proceedings. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21741-8

Settle, A. & Steinbach, T. (Chairs). (2015). SIGITE'15: Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM conference on Information technology Education. Association for Computing Machinery. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2808006

Notes

For conference proceedings that have been published in a journal, follow the format for a Journal Article (Print or Electronic).

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Office for National Statistics (2020)...
...(Office for National Statistics, 2020).

NHS Digital (2019)...
...(NHS Digital, 2019).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initials. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title and numeration (edition if needed) (Identifier; Version number if one exists) [Data Set]. Publisher if not the same as the author. URL or doi

Office for National Statistics. (2020). Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland (MYE14) [Data Set]. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/datasets/populationestimatesforukenglandandwalesscotlandandnorthernireland

NHS Digital. (2019). Mental health services (Amd 43/2019; Version 4.1) [Data Set]. https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/data-collections-and-data-sets/data-sets/mental-health-services-data-set

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.
In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Di Marco et al. (2016)...
...(Di Marco et al., 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of Data Set [Unpublished raw data]. Name of repository. Retrieved date, retrieved from URL or doi Source if known.

Di Marco, R., Rossi, S., Racic, V., Cappa, P. & Mazza, C. (2016). Kinematic data for the concurrent repeatability and reproducibility analysis of four gait models for foot-ankle complex [Unpublished raw data]. Figshare. Retrieved October 31, 2016, from https://doi.org/10.15131/shef.data.3502712.v1 University of Sheffield.

Notes

If the data set is untitled, provide a description of the publication status and focus of the data in square brackets instead, e.g. [Unpublished raw data on.........]

If the source of the data is known, e.g. a university, include it at the end of the reference.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Dictionary Entry - Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date). Title of entry. In Editor Initial(s), Surname (Ed(s).). Title of dictionary (Edition, Volume if needed). Publisher.

Entwistle, N. (1990). Learning styles. In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.). The Blackwell dictionary of cognitive psychology. Basil Blackwell Ltd.

If there is not an author of the entry

Title of entry. (Year). In Editor Initial(s), Surname. Title of dictionary (Edition., Volume if needed). Publisher.

Nirvana. (2001). In S. Sadie (Ed.). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vol.17). Macmillan Publishers.

Dictionary Entry - Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Date). Title of entry. In Editor Initial(s). Surname (Ed(s).). In Title of dictionary (Edition., Volume if needed). Publisher if not the same as the author. URL or doi

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). artificial intelligence (AI). In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved July 24, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/artificial-intelligence

If there is not an author of the entry

Title of entry. (Year). In Editor Initial(s), Surname. In Title of dictionary (Edition., Volume if needed). Publisher. URL or doi

Psychology, n. (2015). In OED Online. Oxford University Press. https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/153907?redirectedFrom=psychology#eid

Full Dictionary - Print

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of dictionary (Edition if not first). Publisher.

Soanes, C., & Stevenson, A. (Eds.). (2008). Concise Oxford English Dictionary (11th rev. ed.). Oxford University Press.

Full Dictionary - Online

In the bibliography/reference list

Editor Surname, Initial(s). (Ed(s).). (Year). Title of dictionary (Edition if not first). Publisher. URL

Oxford University Press. (n.d.). OED Online. Retrieved 18 August, 2020, from http://www.oed.com/

Notes

Include a retrieval date for online entries only where the entry is likely to change or be updated over time and not archived. Use the following format:

Retrieved February 28, 2020, from https://xxxxx

If you are referencing an entry from a multivolume work which has both volume editors and a series/executive editor, only use the volume editor for that particular entry in the reference.

You may find that some dictionaries do not name an editor, if this is the case start with the title of dictionary in place of the editor.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you should cite as follows:

Bobcomb (2005)...
...(Bobcomb, 2005)

Burbridge (2014)...
...(Burbridge, 2014)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of dissertation [Description]. Name of institution.

Bobcomb, P. (2005). A historical study of the development of the Adult Education Unit of the Ministry of Education in Trinidad and Tobago for the period 1944-2004 [Unpublished master's dissertation]. University of Sheffield.

Burbridge, A. (2014). Is contemporary government discourse creating a false notion of necessity within early childhood education and formalising early childhood education to the detriment of children's learning and development? [Unpublished master's dissertation]. University of Sheffield.

Notes

This referencing format can also be used for other types of unpublished dissertations by changing the wording in the square brackets, e.g. [Unpublished undergraduate dissertation].

For more information about in-text citation and referencing, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Full Exhibition

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Cooper (2013-2014)...
...(Cooper, 2013-2014).

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed (2009-2010)...
...(Beatles to Bowies: the 60s exposed, 2009-2010).

The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists (2016)...
...(The Age of Abstraction: Women Artists, 2016).

Viewed in person

In the bibliography/reference list

Curator Surname, Initial(s) (if available). (Year of exhibition). Title of exhibition [Description e.g. Exhibition]. Holding Institution, Location. URL (if available)

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed [Exhibition]. (2009-2010). National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/exhib.htm

Cooper, T. (2013-2014). Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/elizabethi/exhibition.php

The age of abstraction: Women artists [Exhibition]. (2016). Graves Gallery, Sheffield, England.

Online/Electronic

In the bibliography/reference list

Curator Surname, Initial(s) (if available). (Date). Title of exhibition [Description e.g. Exhibition]. Holding institution, Location. URL

Beatles to Bowie: the 60s exposed [Exhibition]. (2009-2010). National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/exhib.htm

Cooper, T. (2013-2014). Elizabeth I & her people [Exhibition]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/elizabethi/exhibition.php

Item as part of an exhibition

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Hilliard (ca. 1585)...
...(Hilliard, ca. 1585).

Bebbington (1969)...
...(Bebbington, 1969).

Viewed in person

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, Artist initial(s). (Year) Title [Description e.g. Photograph]. Holding institution, Location. URL (if available)

Bebbington, D. (1969). David Bowie [Photograph]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/sixty9.htm

Hilliard, N. (ca. 1585). Queen Elizabeth I [Oil painting]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw02074/Queen-Elizabeth-I?LinkID=mp01452&role=sit&rNo=4

Online/Electronic

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title [Description e.g. Photograph]. Holding institution, Location. URL

Bebbington, D. (1969). David Bowie [Photograph]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/beatles/sixty9.htm

Hilliard, N. (ca. 1585). Queen Elizabeth I [Oil painting]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw02074/Queen-Elizabeth-I?LinkID=mp01452&role=sit&rNo=4

Notes

Provide the curator(s) of the exhibition as the author or, if there is no curator, provide the title of the exhibition in place of the author.

If you viewed the artwork on display rather than online, still provide a URL to the artwork on the museum or gallery's website if there is one available.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

F, G, H

Legislation passed post 1963 is numbered in the year which it received Royal Assent.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Psychoactive Substances Act (2016)...
...(Psychoactive Substances Act, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of act and year. Chapter. Publisher.

Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c 2. The Stationery Office.

Online

Name of act and year. Chapter. URL

Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. c 2. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/2/pdfs/ukpga_20160002_en.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Legislation passed pre-1963 was numbered by regnal year of the monarch (number of year since the monarch's ascension).

In the text

For an in-text citation you would cite the reference as follows:

The Official Secrets Act (1939)...
...(Official Secrets Act, 1939).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of act and year. Regnal year(s) name of monarch, chapter. Publisher.

Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c 121. HMSO.

Online

Name of act and year. Regnal year(s) name of monarch, chapter. URL

Official Secrets Act 1939. 2&3 Geo. 6, c 121. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1939/121/pdfs/ukpga_19390121_en.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

In the bibliography/reference list

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2015)...
...(Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2015).

Department of Health and Social Care (2016)...
...(Department of Health and Social Care, 2016).

Physical item

Author (Government Department). (Year). Title of command paper Number. Publisher.

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. (2015). Fulfilling our potential: Teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9141. HMSO.

Department of Health and Social Care. (2016). Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of the spending review on health and social care Cm 9385. HMSO.

Online

Government Department. (Year). Title of command paper Number. URL

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. (2016). Fulfilling our potential: Teaching excellence, social mobility and student choice Cm 9141. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474227/BIS-15-623-fulfilling-our-potential-teaching-excellence-social-mobility-and-student-choice.pdf

Department of Health and Social Care. (2016). Government response to the House of Commons Health Select Committee report into the impact of the spending review on health and social care Cm 9385. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/577910/DH_Gov_Response_Accessible.pdf

Notes

The numbering of command papers is done by running numbers with a prefix which changes as the number gets close to 10,000. The prefixes are listed below:

  • 1868–1869 – 1–4222
  • 1870–1899 – C 1–C 9550
  • 1900–1918 – Cd 1–Cd 9239
  • 1919–1956 – Cmd 1–Cmd 9889
  • 1956–1986 – Cmnd 1–Cmnd 9927
  • 1986–current – Cm 1–

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Department of Health and Social Care (2015)...
...(Department of Health and Social Care, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Government Department. (Year). Title of data set and numeration (edition if needed) [File type]. Publisher. URL or doi

Department of Health and Social Care. (2015). DoLS monthly summary statistics. Quarter 2, 2015-2016 [Data set]. GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/deprivation-of-liberty-safeguards-dols-july-to-september-2015

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

House of Commons (2016)...
...(House of Commons, 2016).

House of Lords (2016)...
...(House of Lords, 2016).

House of Commons (1938)...
...(House of Commons, 1938)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical Item

Name of house. (Year, month day). Name [Hansard]. (Series if applicable) Volume Number (if available) Column. Publisher.

House of Commons. (2016, July 18). Official report: Parliamentary debates [Hansard]. Vol.613 No.27 cc.527-28. The Stationery Office.

House of Lords. (2016, September 17). Official report: Parliamentary debates [Hansard]. Vol.764 No.46 cc.1957-59. The Stationery Office.

Online

Name of house. (Year, month day). Name [Hansard]. (Series if applicable) Volume Number (if available) Column. URL

House of Commons. (1938, July 18). The official report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard]. (5th Series) Vol.338 cc.527-528. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1938/jul/18/mr-speakers-ruling

House of Commons. (2016, July 18). Official report: Parliamentary debates [Hansard]. Vol.613 No.37 cc.527-28. https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2016-07-18/debates/16071818000004/OralAnswersToQuestions

House of Lords. (2015, September 17). Official report: Parliamentary Debates [Hansard]. Vol.764 No.46 cc.1957-59. https://hansard.parliament.uk/lords/2015-09-17/debates/15091736000770/BBCCharter2017

Notes

If you are citing more than one column, use cc as the prefix rather than c.

If you are citing older Hansards, you will need to include the series. These are as follows:

  • 1st Series – Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates: Vol.1 (1803) – Vol.22 (March/May 1812) continued by
    The Parliamentary Debates: Vol.23 (May/June 1812) to Vol.41 (February 1820). N.B. Some reissued sets were numbered Vol.1 – Vol.22 as The Parliamentary Debates.
  • 2nd Series – The Parliamentary Debates, New Series: Vol.1 (April 1820) – Vol.25 (July 1830).
  • 3rd Series – Hansard's Parliamentary Debates (3rd Series): Vol.1 (October 1830) – Vol.356 (August 1891).
  • 4th Series – The Parliamentary Debates (4th Series): Vol.1 (February 1892) – Vol.199 (December 1908)
  • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) – Vol.1000 (March 1981). N.B. The name Hansard was officially restored in 1941.
  • 5th Series – The Official Report, House of Lords (5th Series): Vol.1 (January 1909) –
  • 6th Series – The Official Report, House of Commons (6th Series): Vol.1 (March 1981) –

There are 6 different types of numbered columns in Hansard, the letters should appear after the column number as a suffix – these are as follows:

  • No letters – Discussions in the chamber
  • WH – Westminster Hall
  • WS – Written Statements
  • W – Written Answers
  • P – Petitions
  • C – Ministerial Corrections

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission (2016)...
...(Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission, 2016).

Select Committee on Economic Affairs (2016)...
...(Select Committee on Economic Affairs, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government Department or Commission. (Year). Title Paper number, session. Publisher.

Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. (2016). Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015-2016 HC 539, 2016-2017. National Audit Office.

Select Committee on Economic Affairs. (2016). Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more houses: Volume 1, Report HL20, 2016-2017. By the authority of the House of Lords.

Online

Government Department or Commission. (Year). Title Paper number, session. URL

Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission. (2016). Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission Account 2015-2016 HC 539, 2016-2017. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/542143/MACC_account_2015_to_2016.pdf

Select Committee on Economic Affairs. (2016). Economic Affairs Committee 1st report: Building more houses: Volume 1, Report HL20, 2016-2017. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeconaf/20/20.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Leeds City Council Act (2013)...
...(Leeds City Council Act, 2013).

South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act (1993)...
...(South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act, 1993)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of act and year. Chapter. Publisher.

Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii. The Stationery Office.

South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii. HMSO.

Online

Name of act and year. Chapter. URL

Leeds City Council Act 2013. Chapter ii. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/2013/2/introduction/enacted

South Yorkshire Light Rail Transit Act 1993. Chapter ii. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/1993/2/introduction/enacted

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

House of Commons (2016)...
...(House of Commons, 2016).

House of Lords (2015)...
...(House of Lords, 2015).

House of Lords (2016)...
...(House of Lords, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government department. (Year). Title Paper number, session. Publisher.

House of Commons. (2016). Digital Economy Bill HCB45, 2016-2017. The Stationery Office.

House of Lords. (2015). Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56-EN, 2015-2016. The Stationery Office.

House of Lords. (2016). Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016-2017. The Stationery Office.

Online

Government department. (Year). Title Paper number, session. URL

House of Commons. (2016). Digital Economy Bill HCB45, 2016-2017. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0045/cbill_2016-20170045_en_1.htm

House of Lords. (2015). Energy Bill Explanatory Notes HLB 56-EN, 2015-2016. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2015-2016/0056/en/16056en.pdf

House of Lords. (2016). Policing and Crime Bill Amendments HLB 55 c, 2016-2017. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2016-2017/0055/17055(c).pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations (2006)...
...(The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations, 2006).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical Item

Name of Statutory Instrument Number. Publisher.

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449. The Stationery Office.

Online

Name of Statutory Instrument Number. URL

The Police (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations 2006 SI 2006/3449. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2006/3449/pdfs/uksi_20063449_en.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Department of Health and Social Care (2016)...
...(Department of Health and Social Care, 2016).

Office for Nuclear Regulation (2020)...
...(Office for Nuclear Regulation, 2020).

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Government Department. (Year, month if available). Title. Publisher.

Department of Health and Social Care. (2016). National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. GOV.UK.

Office for Nuclear Regulation. (2020, July). Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategy 2020-2025: Presented to Parliament pursuant to paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013. GOV.UK.

Online

Government Department. (Year, Month if available). Title. URL

Department of Health and Social Care. (2016). National framework for NHS continuing healthcare and NHS funded nursing care. GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213137/National-Framework-for-NHS-CHC-NHS-FNC-Nov-2012.pdf

Office for Nuclear Regulation. (2020, July). Office for Nuclear Regulation Strategy Plan 2020-2025: Presented to Parliament pursuant to paragraph 25(3) of Schedule 7 to the Energy Act 2013. GOV.UK. http://www.onr.org.uk/documents/2016/strategic-plan-2016-2020.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows

House of Commons (2016)...
...(House of Commons, 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Name of house. (Year, Month Day). Title Number, session. URL

House of Commons. (2016, September 15). Votes and proceedings no.38, 2016-2017. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmvote/160915v01.pdf

Notes

APA referencing is an American system of referencing and does not have a set way of referencing Government Publications from the UK. The above is an interpretation of the general referencing rules of APA.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

I, J, K

For images that you have inserted into your work:

Image with no attribution required

You do not need to provide a reference, in-text citation or copyright attribution for a stock image or clip art image that specifies "no attribution required". Instead, provide a figure number, e.g. Figure 1, followed by a title for the image, and insert the image below the title. Provide a figure note below the image if required.

See the APA Style's Clip art or stock image references for more information.

Image that requires an attribution

If the image license states that attribution is required, provide a copyright attribution in the figure note and include a reference in your reference list. You do not need to add the copyright attribution in the reference list.

In the text

Provide a figure number, e.g. Figure 3, followed by the title of the image, e.g. Ladybower plughole, and insert the image below the title. Underneath the image, add your figure note, ending with the copyright attribution, e.g.

Note. From Title of image [Format description], by Author surname, Initial(s). or Username, Year, Source (URL). Copyright attribution.

Note. From Ladybower plughole [Photograph], by andy_c, 2008, Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922). CC BY 2.0.

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). or Username. (Date). Title of item [Format Description]. Source. URL

andy_c. (2008). Ladybower Plughole [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

See the APA Style's Clip art or stock image references for more information.

For images you are referencing but have not inserted into your work:

Online image (e.g. Flickr) with full details

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

andy_c (2008)...
...(andy_c, 2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, Initial(s). or Username. (Date). Title of item [Format Description]. Source. URL

andy_c. (2008). Ladybower Plughole [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andycpics/3035948922

Online image without a clear title

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite your reference as follows

ren_7 (2010)...
...(ren_7, 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. (Date). [Description of the image] [Format Description]. Source. URL.

ren_7. (2010). [Beach Huts] [Digital image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ren7/5108123117/

Online image without a clear date

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

Murawski (ca. 2008)...
...(Murawski, ca.2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). or Username. [Estimated date]. Title [Format Description]. Source. URL

Murawski, D.A. (ca. 2008). Spicebush swallowtail butterfly [Digital image]. National Geographic. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/photos/patterns-butterflies/#/1371.ngsversion.1467941567217.jpg

Notes

If both the author's username and real name are known, provide the real name followed by the username in square brackets, e.g. Author Surname, Initial(s). [Username].

If the date is not presented with the image but you know the date from another source, then you would include this in square brackets.

If the date is not presented with the image but you can estimate it, use ca. before the date in brackets e.g. (ca. 2008)

If a date cannot be ascertained, you would use n.d. for 'no date' in brackets e.g. (n.d.)

For more information see the How to attribute images tutorial.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Original photograph or image on display e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Tanqueray (1930)...
...(Tanqueray, 1930).

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year). Title [Format Description]. Holding institution, Location. URL (if available)

Tanqueray, P. (1930). Ethel Edith Manin [Photograph]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portraitLarge/mw14080/Ethel-Edith-Mannin

Or if viewing online

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year). Title [Format Description]. Holding institution, Location. URL

Tanqueray, P. (1930). Ethel Edith Manin [Photograph]. National Portrait Gallery, London, England. http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portraitLarge/mw14080/Ethel-Edith-Mannin

Original photograph or image on display without a clear title e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Dewynters (1999)...
...(Dewynters, 1999).

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year). [Description of the image] [Format Description]. Holding institution, Location. URL (if available)

Dewynters. (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [Poster]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O48809/poster-dewynters-ltd/

Or if viewing online

Artist surname, initial(s). (Year).[Description of the image] [Format Description]. Holding institution, Location. URL

Dewynters. (1999). [Cats at the New London Theatre] [Poster]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O48809/poster-dewynters-ltd/

Original photograph or image on display without a clear date e.g. in an art gallery

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Alinari (ca. 19th Century)...
...(Alinari, ca. 19th Century).

Bourne (ca. 19th Century)...
...(Bourne, ca. 19th Century).

Artist surname, initial(s). [Year]. Title [Format Description]. Holding institution, Location. URL (if available)

Alinari, F. (ca. 19th Century). La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [Photograph]. Graves Gallery, Sheffield, England. http://collections.museums-sheffield.org.uk/media/view/Objects/18688/5530?t:state:flow=92c89c87-5f89-4bcf-aa37-416989e559e5

Bourne, E. (ca. 19th Century). Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [Photograph]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O81545/red-fort-at-lahore-gate-photograph/

Or if viewing online

Artist surname, initial(s). [Year]. Title [Format Description]. Holding institution, Location. URL

Alinari, F. (ca. 19th Century). La Torre di Palazzo Vecchio vista attraverso i finestroni del Campanile di Giotto [Photograph]. Graves Gallery, Sheffield, England. http://collections.museums-sheffield.org.uk/media/view/Objects/18688/5530?t:state:flow=92c89c87-5f89-4bcf-aa37-416989e559e5

Bourne, E. (ca. 19th Century). Red Fort at Lahore Gate, New Delhi [Photograph]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O81545/red-fort-at-lahore-gate-photograph/

Own photograph taken for your research

If you take a photograph for your own research, there will be no need to add an in-text citation or reference for this as everything in your assignment/research is expected to be your own work unless stated otherwise by use of citation and reference.

Notes

If you viewed the image on display in person rather than online, still provide a URL to the image on the museum or gallery's website if there is one available.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Applied Biosystems (2008)...
...(Applied Biosystems, 2008).

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2013)...
...(Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd., 2013).

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, Initial(s). or Corporate Author. (Date). Title (Edition if not first) [Description]. Publisher if not the same as the author.

Applied Biosystems. (2008). SOLiD System Accuracy [Fact sheet].

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2013). Doxycycline 50mg capsules [Patient information leaflet].

Online/Electronic

Author surname, Initial(s). or Corporate Author. (Date). Title (Edition if not first) [Description]. Publisher if not the same as the author. URL

Applied Biosystems. (2008). SOLiD System Accuracy [Fact sheet]. http://tools.thermofisher.com/content/sfs/brochures/SOLiD_Accuracy.pdf

Kent Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2013). Doxycycline 50mg capsules [Patient information leaflet]. https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/PIL.26285.latest.pdf

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Wang and Kim (2010) looked at the competency of counselling professionals...
...Multicultural skills should be considered when...(Wang & Kim, 2010)

Three or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Macizo et al. (2011) identified cognitive patterns...
Linguistic information...(Macizo et al., 2011).

Book Review

If you are referencing a book review you should include the following after the title: [Review of the book title of the book, by Author initials. Author surname], e.g.

Miller, A. J. (2018, August 2017). An island on the brink [Review of the book Chesapeake Requiem, by E. Smith]. Science, 361(6403), 653.

If the book review does not have a given title, you would use the information in square brackets as the title, e.g.

Busch, F. (2015). [Review of the book Restoring mentalizing in attachment relationships: Treating trauma with plain old therapy, by J. G. Allen]. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 32(1), 216-220.

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Number), Page range.

Wang, S., & Kim, B. S. K. (2010). Therapist multicultural competence, Asian American particpants' cultural values, and counseling process. Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 915-921.

Macizo, M., Herrera, A., Romàn, P., Martin, M. C. (2011). Proficiency in a second language influences the processing of number words. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 915-921.

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

If you are unsure if the article you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: APA style - What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? which gives an explanation of the identifier

In the text

One or two authors

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Carr and Steele (2010) note that negative stereotypes associated with women in the workplace can...
...the decisions made about people is heavily influenced by our stereotypical views (Carr & Steele, 2010)

Three or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Lane et al. (2016) identified that cultural differences may have some effect...
...Flexibility of communication has been demonstrated in young children (Lane et al., 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal/periodical, Volume(Issue), Page range. doi

Carr, P. B., & Steele, C. M. (2010). Stereotype threat affects financial decision making. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1411-1416. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610384146

Lane, J. D., Evans, E. M., Brink, K. A., & Wellman, H.M. (2016). Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication. Developmental Psychology, 52(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000061

Loernic, A. G., Meuret, A. E., Twohig, M. P., Rosenfield, D., Bluett, E. J., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Response rates for CBT for anxiety disorders: Need for standardized criteria. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.004

Book Review

If you are referencing a book review you should include the following after the title: [Review of the book title of the book, by Author initials. Author surname], e.g.

Miller, A. J. (2018, August 2017). An island on the brink [Review of the book Chesapeake Requiem, by E. Smith]. Science, 361(6403), 653. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037892

If the book review does not have a given title, you would use the information in square brackets as the title, e.g.

Busch, F. (2015). [Review of the book Restoring mentalizing in attachment relationships: Treating trauma with plain old therapy, by J. G. Allen]. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 32(1), 216-220. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037982

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

If you are unsure if the article you are looking at has a DOI, please see the following page: APA style - What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? which gives an explanation of the identifier

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Carr and Steele (2010) note that negative stereotypes associated with women in the workplace can...
...the decisions made about people is heavily influenced by our stereotypical views (Carr & Steele, 2010)

Three or more authors

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Medin et al. (2010) identified that a problem with experimentation...
...when conducting experiments it is difficult not to see your own cultural norms and expectations represented in the results (Medin et al., 2010).

In the bibliography/reference list
From an academic research database, e.g. Elsevier

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue), page range.

Carr, P. B., & Steele, C. M. (2010). Stereotype threat affects financial decision making. Psychological Science, 21(10), 1411-1416.

Medin, D., Bennis, W., & Chandler, M. (2010). Culture and the home-field disadvantage. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 708-713.

Do not include the database name or homepage URL as these may require a password to access.

From a non-database URL

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue), page range. URL

Besser, H. (2002). The next stage: Moving from isolated digital collections to interoperable digital libraries. First Monday, 7(6). https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/958/879

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Torrance and Goldband (2020)...
...(Torrance & Goldband, 2020)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal. Advance online publication. URL or doi

Torrance, J. B., & Goldband, S. (2020). Mathematical connection between short telomere induced senescence calculation and mortality rate data. Preprints. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202007.0672.v1

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In some fields, such as medicine and physics, an article may have hundreds of authors, in such cases it may be impractical to list each one. You would reference as follows:

In the text

For an in-text citation within your work for three or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations

Aubert et al. (2002)...
...(Aubert et al., 2002)

In the bibliography/reference list

For up to and including twenty authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name:

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., & Author Surname, Initial(s) (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue), page range. URL or doi

Kreibich, M., Desai, N. D., Bavaria, J. E., Szeto, W. Y., Vallabhajosyula, P., Itagaki, R., Okamura, H., Kimura, N., Yamaguchi, A., Beyersdorf, F., Czerny, M., & Rylski, B. (2020). Preoperative neurological deficit in acute type A aortic dissection. Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, 30(4), pp. 613-619. https://doi-org.sheffield.idm.oclc.org/10.1093/icvts/ivz311

For twenty one or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name:

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., ... Final Author Surname, Initial(s) (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue), page range. URL or doi

Aubert, B., Bazan, A., Boucham, A., Boutigny, D., De Bonis, I., Favier, J., Gaillard, J.-M., Jeremie, A., Karyotakis, Y., Le Flour, T., Lees, J. P., Lieunard, S., Petitpas, P., Robbe, P., Tisserand, V., Zachariadou, K., Palano, A., Chen, G.P., Chen, J.C., ... Neal, H. (2002). The BABAR detector. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 479(1), pp.1-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9002(01)02012-5

Notes

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation within your work for three or more authors, you would use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." in all citations

Nagel et al. (2015, Visual Themes section, para. 6)...
...(Nagel et al., 2015, Visual Themes section, para. 6).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of Article. Title of periodical, Volume(Issue). URL or doi

Nagel, A., Reiner, R. & Wolf, P. (2015). High user control in game design elements increases compliance and in-game performance in a memory training game. Frontiers in Psychology. 6(1774). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01774

Notes

If there are 2 to 20 authors, include all authors' names and use an ampersand before the final author's name.

If there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand) and add the final author's name.

To quote directly from a source without page numbers you can provide a heading or section name (abbreviated if it is long) or a paragraph number (manually count the paragraphs), or a combination of both.

If the journal uses article numbers, include the word "Article" and the number instead of any page range.

Some references do not have issue numbers for journal/periodical runs. If this is the case, omit the issue number.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

L, M, N, O, P, Q

Citing informal or unpublished materials, such as handouts, lecture recordings and lecture notes is not generally recommended. Instead you should look to cite a primary source (such as a textbook or journal article) which describes or summarises the idea you are referring to. You may wish to ask your lecturer for recommended reading.

APA guidelines recognise magazines as a periodical in that they are published at regular intervals - the same as a journal or a newspaper.

Magazine articles can be referenced using guidance for either a Journal Article (Print, with or without a DOI) or as a Newspaper Article depending on the publication information available.

If you can find the volume and/or issue number, then you would reference as a Journal article.

If you cannot locate the volume and issue number, then you would reference using the guidance for a Newspaper article.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Ordnance Survey (1996)...
...(Ordnance Survey, 1996).

Ordnance Survey (2014)...
...(Ordnance Survey, 2014)

Google Maps (2015)...
...(Google Maps, 2015)

Google Maps (2017)...
...(Google Maps, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Physical item

Name of cartographer (Surname, initials(s) or corporate author). (Year). Title (Series, and series number) [Map type]. Publisher.

Ordnance Survey. (1996). Inverness and Strathglass (Landranger series sheet 26) [Ordnance Survey Map]. Ordnance Survey.

Ordnance Survey. (2014). SK3486 SW [Ordnance Survey Map]. Ordnance Survey.

Online item

Name of cartographer (Surname, initial(s) or corporate author). (Year). Title [Map type]. Retrieved (Month Day, Year if using a Google map or similar), from URL.

Ordnance Survey. (2017). [Castleton, Derbyshire 1:20000, Ordnance Survey]. http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/roam/os

Google Maps. (2015). [Google Street View Information Commons Sheffield]. Retrieved June 2, 2017 from https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.3811141,-1.484649,3a,75y,90t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1scIigK3ySgICJnI9EBfdyuQ!2e0!7i13312!8i6656?hl=en

Google Maps. (2017). [Google map of Information Commons, Sheffield]. Retrieved June 2, 2017 from https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@53.381501,-1.4849867,19.75z?hl=en

Notes

If there is not a title present, you would add a description of the item in square brackets e.g. [Google Street View Information Commons Sheffield].

If you are not adding a retrieval date, omit "Retrieved from" before the URL.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

The Prodigy (1997)...
...(The Prodigy, 1997)

The Beatles (1967)...
...(The Beatles, 1967)

Queens of the Stone Age (2002)...
...(Queens of the Stone Age, 2002)

In the bibliography/reference list

Recording artist surname, initial(s) or group. (Copyright year). Title of album (edition if needed.) [Album]. Record Label.

The Prodigy. (1997). The Fat of the Land [Album]. XL-Recordings.

The Beatles. (1967). The Beatles [Album]. Parlophone EMI.

Queens of the Stone Age. (2002). Songs for the Deaf (Limited Edition UK Version.) [Album; CD]. Interscope Records.

Notes

It is not necessary to specify the format you listened to the album in (CD, Vinyl, Spotify, etc.) unless you accessed special tracks or features that do not appear on other format versions of the album. In this case, include a description of the format within the square brackets after "Album" and a semicolon, e.g. [Album; Vinyl].

Include a URL at the end of the reference if this is the only means of retrieval, e.g. accessible only from a band/artist's website or from a platform such as SoundCloud.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation for one or two artists, you would use all artists in your citation (either band names or recording artists surnames):

Lennon (1975)...
...(Lennon, 1975).

The Prodigy (1996)...
...(The Prodigy, 1996).

The Runaways (1976/2014)...
...(The Runaways, 1976/2014).

Mangan (2009)...
...(Mangan, 2009).

In the bibliography/reference list

Artist surname, initial(s) or Band. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Record Label. URL (if only means of retrieval)

Lennon, J. (1975). You can't catch me [Song]. On Rock n Roll. Apple Records.

The Prodigy. (1996). Breathe [Song]. On The Fat of the Land. X-L Recordings.

The Runaways. (2014). Cherry Bomb [Song]. On Guardians of the Galaxy: Awesome Mix Vol.1 (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack). Marvel Music. (Original song published 1976).

Mangan, D. (2009). Robots [Song]. On Nice, Nice, Very Nice. Arts & Crafts Productions.

Notes

The in-text citation consists of the songwriter, year of copyright, and track number. If referencing an item on vinyl, you will also need to state which side of the album it is on.

If the copyright date and recording date are different, you would include both in the in-text citation.

Include a URL at the end of the reference if this is the only means of retrieval, e.g. accessible only from a band/artist's website or from a platform such as SoundCloud.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in text citation in your work for one or two composers, you would use all composer surnames in your citation:

Bowie (1998)...
...(Bowie, 1998)

Verdi (1978/1874)...
...(Verdi, 1978/1874)

Gilbert and Sullivan (1900)...
...(Gilbert & Sullivan, 1900)

In the bibliography/reference list

Composer surname, initial(s). (Year). Title [Type of score]. (Editors or translator initial(s). Surname if needed). Publisher. (Original work published year - if applicable)

Bowie, D. (1998). The best of David Bowie 1974/1979 [Music score]. Wise Publications.

Verdi, G. (1978). Requiem [Music score]. Dover. (Original work published 1874).

Gilbert, W. S., & Sullivan, A. (1900). Trial by jury [Vocal score]. Chappell.

Notes

If there is a librettist for a score, you would include their surname and initials as well as the composer in the order that they appear on the work, e.g.

Composer surname, initials., & Librettist surname, initials. (Year). Title of work [Type of score]. Publisher.

If the copyright date and recording date are different, you would include both in the in-text citation.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Sample (2015)...
...(Sample, 2015)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Full date of publication). Title of Article. Title of newspaper, page numbers.

Sample, I. (2015, December 15). Briton to blast off on mission of a lifetime. The Guardian, 1, 24-25.

Online/Electronic

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Full date of publication). Title of Article. Title of newspaper. URL

Sample, I. (2015, December 15). Tim Peake, Britain's first ESA astronaut, set for lift off from Kazakhstan. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/dec/14/britain-iss-astronaut-tim-peake-international-space-station

Newspaper database e.g. Nexis

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Full date of publication). Title of Article. Title of newspaper.

Sample, I. (2015, December 15). Tim Peake, Britain's first ISS astronaut, set for lift off from Kazakhstan; Principia mission to International Space Station opens UK to serious involvement in human spaceflight. The Guardian.

Notes

For a newspaper article obtained from a database such as Nexis, it is not necessary to include the database or URL in the reference.

Sometimes a newspaper article is spread over a number of non-continuous pages. If this is the case separate the page numbers with a comma, e.g. 1, 5, 24-25.

For more information about in-text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the text as follows:

Stokes, C. (2020)...
...(Stokes, C., 2020)

In the bibliography/reference list

Course instructor(s) Surname, initial(s). (Year). Title of course [Description]. Site name. URL.

Stokes, C. (2020). Discover dentistry [MOOC]. FutureLearn. https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/discover-dentistry

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the text as follows:

ab_messi (2020)...
...(ab_messi, 2020)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of post]. Site name. URL

ab_messi. (2020, March 24). Difference between Web of Science and Google Scholar? [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/research/comments/foa3h2/difference_between_web_of_science_and_google/

Notes

If the post is from a site which requires a user login, e.g. Blackboard, provide the name of the site and the URL of its login page.

If the person posting in the forum only has a screen name, use this without the brackets in place of the author.

If the post title has more than 20 words, only provide up to the first 20.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Carter and Lawless (2010)...
...(Carter & Lawless, 2010).

Hollis and Tan (2017)...
...(Hollis & Tan, 2017).

In the bibliography/reference list

Inventor surname, initial(s). (Year of issue). Title of patent (Patent Identifier Number). Name of publisher. URL (if available)

Carter, R. W., & Lawless, K.G. (2010). Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool (U.S. Patent No. 7,686,202). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Hollis, T. J., & Tan, F. (2017). Helical gradient coil for magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (Great Britain Patent No. GB2494259). Intellectual Property Office.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite the reference as follows:

Shakespeare (1597/1984)...
...(Shakespeare, 1597/1984)

Shakespeare (1594/1993)...
...(Shakespeare, 1594/1993)

Shakespeare (1597/1637)...
...(Shakespeare, 1597/1637)

Shakespeare (1594/1631)...
...(Shakespeare, 1594/1631)

Shakespeare (1594/2007a)...
...(Shakespeare, 1594/2007a)

Shakespeare (1597/2007b)...
...(Shakespeare, 1597/2007b)

In the bibliography/reference list

Individual play

Playwright surname, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of play. Editor initial(s) and Surname (if applicable). Publisher. (Original work published year - if applicable).

Shakespeare, W. (1984). Romeo & Juliet. G. Blakemore Evans (ed.). Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1597)

Shakespeare, W. (1993). The taming of the shrew. Wordsworth Editions Limited. (Original work published 1594)

If available online

Playwright surname, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of play. Editor initial(s) and Surname (if applicable). URL (Original work published year - if applicable)

Shakespeare, W. (1637). The most excellent and lamentable tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. As it hath beene sundry times publikely acted by the Kings Majesties Servants at the Globe. John Smethwicke. https://digital.nls.uk/shakespeare-quartos/archive/120755446#?c=0&m=0&s=0&cv=4&xywh=320%2C-42%2C8395%2C6223 (Original work published 1597)

Shakespeare, W. (1631). A wittie and pleasant comedie called the taming of the shrew. As it was acted by his Maiesties Seruants at the Blacke Friers and the Globe. John Smethwicke. https://digital.nls.uk/shakespeare-quartos/archive/120755447#?c=0&m=0&s=0&cv=6&xywh=-213%2C-1%2C7620%2C5649 (Original work published 1594)

In an anthology/complete works

Playwright surname, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title. In Editor(s) initial(s) and surname (Ed). Title of anthology or collected works (Page numbers). Publisher. (Original work published year - if applicable).

Shakespeare, W. (2007a). The taming of the shrew. In J. Bate & E. Rasmussen (Eds). William Shakespeare Complete Works (pp.526-583). Macmillan. (Original work published 1594)

Shakespeare, W. (2007b). The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. In J. Bate & E. Rasmussen (Eds). William Shakespeare Complete Works (pp.526-583). Macmillan. (Original work published 1597)

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames in your citation:

Grant (2016)...
...(Grant, 2016).

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more authors, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Sciamanna et al. (2016)...
...(Sciamanna et al., 2016).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of document [Format Description]. Name of host site. URL

Grant, V. (2016, December). Voice, agency and the medical arts [PowerPoint Presentation]. Slideshare. https://www.slideshare.net/missvagrant/voice-agency-and-the-medical-arts?qid=a182e432-dc5c-4cf0-a7bb-8a1acea1d416&v=&b=&from_search=7

Sciamanna, C., Bazela, C. & Bullingham, L. (2016, September 16). Reconceptualising information and digital literacy in a fluid digital world [PowerPoint Presentation]. Slideshare. https://www.slideshare.net/northerncollaboration/reconceptualising-information-and-digital-literacy-in-a-fluid-digital-world

Notes

If slides are from a site which requires a user login, e.g. Blackboard, provide the name of the site and the URL of its login page.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street (2020)...
...(Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street, 2020).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, Month day). Title of document [Description]. Publisher. URL

Prime Minister's Office, 10 Downing Street. (2020, July 9). Applicants to nursing courses in England up 16% as NHS employs record number of nurses and midwives [Press release]. GOV.UK. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/applicants-to-nursing-courses-in-england-up-16-as-nhs-employs-record-number-of-nurses-and-midwives

Notes

If the author and the publisher of the press release are the same, omit the publisher.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

R, S, T, U

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Carter (2020)...
...(Carter, 2020).

Maconie (2020)...
...(Maconie, 2020)

McElvoy (2017)...
...(McElvoy, 2017)

Quinn (2017)...
...(Quinn, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

Surname, initial(s). (Year, Month Day of transmission). Title (Relevant information such as episode) [Radio Broadcast]. Publisher site. URL of broadcast

Carter, D. P. (2020, July 19). Radio 1's Rock Show with Daniel P Carter (Emo Special) [Radio Broadcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000l1sg

Maconie, S. (2020, July 19). Stuart Maconie's Freak Zone (Remembering Ennio Morricone) [Radio Broadcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000l1vj

McElvoy, A. (2020, June 11). Free Thinking (The future of theatre debate) [Radio Broadcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m000jvhz

Quinn, C. (2020, June 28). Westminster Hour [Radio Broadcast]. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p08j9d5c

Notes

Provide the name of the announcer or host of the broadcast as the author.

Provide the name of the site that published the broadcast, e.g. BBC, and the full URL of the broadcast.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two authors, you would use all author surnames/corporate authors in your citation:

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME] (2017)...
...(Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME], (2017)

Johnsen and Fitzpatrick (2007)...
...(Johnsen & Fitzpatrick, 2007).

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2015)...
...(Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015).

Mintel (2017)...
...(Mintel, 2017).

Snowdon (2017)...
...(Snowdon, 2017)

Wohlers Associates (2018)...
...(Wohlers Associates, 2018).

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, if the corporation has a recognised abbreviation, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

FAME (2017)...
...(FAME, 2017)

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). Publisher.

Johnsen, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2007). The impact of enforcement on street users in England. The Policy Press.

Wohlers Associates. (2018). Wohlers Report 2018: Additive manufacturing and 3D printing state of the industry: Annual worldwide progress report.

Online/Electronic

Author surname, initial(s). or Corporate author. (Year). Title of report (Paper number if needed). URL

Financial Accounting Made Easy [FAME]. (2017). ForgeMasters International Limited. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from https://fame4.bvdinfo.com/version-2017105/fame/

Joseph Rowntree Foundation. (2015). Building sustainable homes. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/building-sustainable-homes

Mintel. (2017). Fashion Online - UK - June 2017. http://academic.mintel.com/display/793379/

Snowdon, C. (2017). Cheap as chips: Is a healthy diet affordable? (IEA Discussions Paper No. 82). Institute of Economic Affairs. https://iea.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Cheap-as-Chips-PDF.pdf

Notes

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long or well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in square brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

If the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher from the reference (as in the Wohlers Associates example).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Bernini (ca. 1622)...
...(Bernini, ca. 1622)

Giacometti (1955)...
...(Giacometti, 1955)

Keegan (1991)...
...(Keegan, 1991)

Lipchitz (1924)...
...(Lipchitz, 1924)

Merz (1969)...
...(Merz, 1969)

In the bibliography/reference list

On display e.g. in a gallery/museum

Sculptor Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Name of sculpture [Sculpture]. Holding institution, Location. URL (if available)

Bernini, G. (ca. 1622). Neptune and Triton [Sculpture]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. https://www.vam.ac.uk/articles/neptune-and-triton-by-gian-lorenzo-bernini

Keegan, S. (1991). Newby the dog [Sculpture]. Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England. http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O155512/newby-the-dog-sculpture-keegan-steven/

Online e.g. on a gallery/museum website

Sculptor Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Name of sculpture [Sculpture]. Holding institution, Location. URL

Giacometti, A. (1955). Bust of Diego [Sculpture]. Tate Gallery, London, England. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/giacometti-bust-of-diego-t00774

Lipchitz, J. (1924). Musical instruments, standing relief [Sculpture]. Tate Gallery, London, England. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/lipchitz-musical-instruments-standing-relief-t03526

Merz, M. (1969). [Steel and Nylon] [Sculpture]. Tate Gallery, London, England. http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/merz-untitled-t13031

Notes

If you viewed the sculpture on display in person rather than online, still provide a URL to the sculpture on the museum or gallery's website if there is one available.

If the sculpture is untitled, provide a description of it in square brackets in place of the title.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work, you would cite the reference as follows

University of Sheffield Library (2017)...
...(University of Sheffield Library, 2017).

Thunberg (2020)...
...(Thunberg, 2020).

In the bibliography/reference list

Twitter (also use this referencing format for TikTok)

Tweet

Author surname, initial(s). [Screen name]. (Year, Month day). Title of item [Item type]. Site name. URL

University of Sheffield Lib [UniSheffieldLib]. (2017, May 12). On this day in 1959, our Western Bank Library (then called the 'Main Library') was officially opened by T.S. Eliot [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/UniSheffieldLib/status/862945694457274368

Thunberg, G. [@GretaThunberg]. (2020, June 21). The climate and ecological crisis can no longer be solved within today's political and economic systems. That's not an opinion. [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/GretaThunberg/status/1274618877247455233

Twitter profile

Author surname, initial(s). [Screen name]. (n.d.). Tab name [Item type]. Site name. Retrieved date from URL

University of Sheffield Library [UniSheffieldLib]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved July 21, 2020, from https://twitter.com/UniSheffieldLib

Thunberg, G. [@GretaThunberg]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved July 21, 2020, from https://twitter.com/GretaThunberg

Twitter moment

Author surname, initial(s). [Screen name]. (Date). Title of moment [Item type]. Site name. Retrieved date from URL

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (2020, April 15). What's New In the #7thEdition of #APAStyle? [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved 28 July, 2020, from https://twitter.com/i/events/1181218317408837633

Facebook

Facebook post

Author surname, initial(s). (Year, Month day). Title of item [Item type]. Site name. URL

University of Sheffield Library. (2017, April 16). On this day, in 1909, the first library opened at the University of Sheffield Library [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/posts/1346273698788324

Thunberg, G. (2020, June 22). The climate and ecological crisis can no longer be solved within today's political and economic systems. That's not an opinion. [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/gretathunbergsweden/photos/a.733630957004727/1159708081063677/?type=3&theater

Facebook page

Author surname, initial(s). (n.d.). Tab name [Item type]. Site name. Retrieved date from URL

University of Sheffield Library. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved 21 July, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/

Thunberg, G. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved 21 July, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/gretathunbergsweden/

Instagram

Instagram photo

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Date). Title of post [Item type]. Instagram. URL

APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2019, August 28). In the 7th edition of #APAStyle, a running head will not be required in student papers. The full introduction to [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B1uM53KnkHR/

Instagram video

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Date). Title of post [Item type]. Instagram. URL

The University of Sheffield [@theuniversityofsheffield]. (2019, June 5). Sheffield City Tour. The University of Sheffield. Our student vlogger Paula takes you around all the best spots in the [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/tv/ByVQauEhoCs/

Instagram profile

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (n.d.). Name of profile page [Item type]. Instagram. Retrieved from URL

The University of Sheffield [@theuniversityofsheffield]. [n.d.]. Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved 28 July, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/theuniversityofsheffield/

Instagram highlight

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (n.d.). Name of highlight [Item type]. Instagram. Retrieved from URL

APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (n.d.). FAQs [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved 28 July, 2020, from https://www.instagram.com/stories/highlights/17976890599179165/

LinkedIn

LinkedIn post

Author surname, initial(s). (Date). Title of post [Item type]. Site name. URL

The University of Sheffield. (2020, July). Bees are helping design the next generation of autonomous technology thanks to Sheffield company Opteran, and our Department of Computer [Post]. LinkedIn. https://www.linkedin.com/posts/university-of-sheffield_bees-are-helping-design-the-next-generation-activity-6686571480031002624-_aIY

LinkedIn profile

Author surname, initial(s). (n.d.). Tab name [Item type]. Site name. Retrieved from URL

The University of Sheffield. (n.d.). Home [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved July 28, 2020, from https://www.linkedin.com/organization-guest/school/university-of-sheffield/

Notes
  • If you can only find the screen name of the author, then you would provide it as the author without using brackets
  • Use the name of the page, caption, or the content of the page as the title, up to 20 words. A URL, hashtag or emoji count as one word each. If emojis are included in the title, do not italicise them
  • If the item does not have any words, such as a picture, you can provide a description of the item in square brackets in place of the title
  • Add a retrieval date if you are referencing a whole feed or page as the content may change, e.g. Retrieved May 12, 2017, from URL
  • For a LinkedIn post, work out the date as specifically as possible from how long ago the post was made and format as (Year, Month day), e.g. (2020, February 16), or (2020, February)
  • Include a description of the post in square brackets after the title, e.g. [Post], [Tweet], [Photo], [Video], [Status update]

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for you would use the full corporation name in your citation with the abbreviation in square brackets next to it:

American Association for the International Association for Testing Materials [ATSM] (2012)...
...(American Association for the International Association for Testing Materials [ATSM], 2012).

British Standards Institution [BSI] (2017)...
...(British Standard Institution [BSI], 2017).

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2015)...
...(National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2015)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

ATSM (2012)...
...(ATSM, 2012).

BSI (2017)...
...(BSI, 2017).

NICE (2015)...
...(NICE, 2015).

In the bibliography/reference list

Organisation that made the standard. (Year). Title of the standard (Standard No.). URL

American Association for the International Association for Testing Materials. (2012). Standard specification for pipe, steel, and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless (Standard No. A53/A53M-12). https://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?A53A53M-12

British Standards Institution. (2017). Technical product documentation and specification (Standard No. BS 8888). BSOL Standards Online. https://bsol.bsigroup.com

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2015). Obesity in children and young people: prevention and lifestyle weight management programmes (Nice Quality Standard QS94). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs94

Notes

If the URL requires a login, e.g. BSOL Standards Online, provide the URL of the homepage or login page instead of the URL for the particular item that you have accessed.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

Aral (2018)...
...(Aral, 2018).

TED (2020)...
...(TED, 2020).

In the bibliography/reference list
From the TED website

Speaker Surname, Initial. (Year, Month day). Title of talk [Video]. Publisher. URL

Aral, S. (2018, November). How we can protect truth in the age of misinformation [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/sinan_aral_how_we_can_protect_truth_in_the_age_of_misinformation

From the TED YouTube account

YouTube account name (Year, Month day). Title of talk | Name of speaker [Video]. Publisher. URL

TED (2020, July 20). The fight for civil rights and freedom | John Lewis and Bryan Stevenson [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8atXMqZ_w0M

Notes

Provide as specific a date as possible for the video.

If you are using a direct quote from a video, add the time stamp where the quote begins to the in-text citation, e.g. (TED, 2020, 9:48)

For more information about in-text citation and creating your reference list, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite as follows:

Campbell Reid (2007)...
(Campbell Reid, 2007)

Vella (2005)...
(Vella, 2005)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis. [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Name of institution.

Campbell Reid, J. (2007). The social psychology of rural travel mode choice [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. University of Sheffield.

Vella, A. (2005). Educate or punish: the case for prison education [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. University of Sheffield.

Notes

This referencing format can also be used for other types of unpublished theses or dissertations by changing the wording in the square brackets, e.g. [Unpublished undergraduate dissertation].

For more information about in-text citation and creating your reference list, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation, you would cite as follows:

Gee (2010)...
...(Gee, 2010)

Reid (2013)...
...(Reid, 2013)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title of thesis (Doctoral thesis, name of instution). Database/repository name. URL

Gee, K. A. (2010). Lives and careers in music: social identity perspectives on brass music-making (Doctoral thesis, University of Sheffield). White Rose eTheses Online. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/896

Reid, A. M. (2013). The influence of prior knowledge in memory consolidation. (Doctoral thesis, University of York). White Rose eTheses Online. http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/5667

Notes

If there is a publication number, include it in parentheses after the title of the dissertation or thesis.

If the database or repository requires a user login, omit the URL and end the reference with the database/repository name.

This referencing format can also be used for other types of published theses or dissertations by changing the wording in the square brackets, e.g. [Masters dissertation].

For more information about in-text citation and creating your reference list, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

In the text

For an in-text citation within your work, you would cite the reference as follows:

Homer (ca. 800 B.C.E./2018)...
...(Homer, ca. 800 B.C.E./2018).

Dostoyevsky (1866/1914)...
...(Dostoyevsky, 1866/1914).

Tolstoy (1877/2008)...
...(Tolstoy, 1877/2008).

In the bibliography/reference list

In print

Author surname, initial(s). (Year). Title of item (Translator initial(s). Translator surname, trans.). Publisher. (Original work published)

Homer. (2018). The odyssey (E. R. Wilson, trans.). W. W. Norton & Company. (Original work published ca. 800 B.C.E.)

Dostoyevsky, F. (1914). Crime and punishment (C. Garnett, trans.). Heinemann. (Original work published 1866)

Tolstoy, L. (2008). Anna Karenina (L. Maude & A. Maude, trans.). Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1877)

Online/Electronic

Author surname, initial(s). (Year). Title of item (Translator initial(s). Translator surname, trans.). URL (Original work published)

Dostoyevsky, F. (2006). Crime and punishment (C. Garnett, trans.). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2554/2554-h/2554-h.htm (Original work published 1866)

Tolstoy, L. (1998). Anna Karenina (C. Garnett, trans.). http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1399/pg1399-images.pdf (Original work published 1877)

Notes

Include both the date that the work was originally published followed by the copyright date of the version you have used in the citation within the text, and the date of the original publication in parenthesis at the end of the reference. If the original date is approximate, use "ca." for circa before the date.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

"Unpublished works includes work that is in progress, has been completed but not yet submitted for publication, and has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication. Informally published works include work that is available from a preprint archive or repository such as PsyArXiv, an electronic archive such as ERIC, an institutional archive, a government archive, a personal website, and so forth."
(APA, 2020, p. 335)

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s). (Year of the draft). Title of manuscript. ["Unpublished manuscript" or "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in preparation"]. URL (if retrieved online)

If using a unpublished manuscript from a university

Author surname, initial(s). (Year of the draft). Title of manuscript. ["Unpublished manuscript" or "Manuscript submitted for publication" or "Manuscript in preparation"], University Department, Name of institution.

Notes
  • If the work is available electronically, add where you retrieved the information
  • Do not provide the name of the journal or publisher that the manuscript has been submitted
  • A manuscript for a journal which has been accepted for publication should be referenced as Journal – Preprint (Ahead of publication).
  • Use this format for work that is in draft or still in progress, and use the appropriate ending e.g. Manuscript in preparation
  • You may use other endings for the reference which are appropriate for your work e.g. Unpublished raw data

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

[Top of page]

V, W, X, Y, Z

You do not need to include the way you accessed a film or TV programme in the reference, e.g. from a streaming service such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, BBC iPlayer, or a database such as Box of Broadcasts.

Film

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for one or two directors, you would use all director surnames in your citation:

Aronofsky (2010)...
...(Aronofsky, 2010).

Moore (2002)...
...(Moore, 2002).

Coen and Coen (2007)...
...(Coen & Coen, 2007).

In the bibliography/reference list

Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of film [Description]. Production company.

Aronofsky, D. (Director). (2010). Black Swan [Film]. Fox Searchlight Productions.

Moore, M. (Director). (2002). Bowling for Columbine [Documentary]. United Artists.

Coen, E. & Coen, J. (Directors). (2007). No country for old men [Film]. Miramax Films; Paramount Vantage.

Film in another language

Director surname, initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of film [Translation of title] [Description]. Production company.

von Donnersmarck, F. H. (Director). (2006). Das leben der anderen [The lives of others] [Film]. Wiedemann & Berg Filmproduktion; Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR); ARTE; Creado Film.

TV series

Executive producer surname, initial(s). (Executive Producer). (Year(s) series aired). Title of TV series [TV series]. Production company.

Kostroff-Noble, N., Simon, D. & Colesberry, R.F. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

TV episode in a series

In the text

For an in-text citation in your work for three or more creators, use the name of only the first author followed by "et al." in every citation:

Simon et al. (2002)...
...(Simon et al., 2002).

In the bibliography/reference list

Writer surname, initial(s). (Writer), & Director Surname, Initial(s). (Director). (Year). Title of episode (Season or series number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer Initial(s), Surname (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production Company.

Simon, D. (Writer), Burns, E. (Writer) & Virgo, C. (Director). (2002). Old Cases (Season 1, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In N. Kostroff-Noble, D. Simon, & R.F. Colesberry (Executive Producers), The wire. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

Notes

If there is more than one production company, separate each company with a semicolon.

If the series you are referencing is still currently being aired, replace the second year with "present", e.g. (2019-present).

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

Video

In the text

University of Sheffield Library (2019)...
...(University of Sheffield Library, 2019).

Radiohead (2009)...
...(Radiohead, 2009).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (Year, month day). Title of video [Video]. Source. URL

University of Sheffield Library [uniSheffieldLib]. (2019, January 30). Information and Digital Literacy Workshops [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lm7bLmbKOk0

Radiohead (2009, April 22). Radiohead - No Surprises [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5CVsCnxyXg

Channel

In the text

University of Sheffield Library (n.d.)...
...(University of Sheffield Library, n.d.).

Radiohead (n.d.)...
...(Radiohead, n.d.).

In the bibliography/reference list

Author surname, initial(s) [Screen name]. (n.d.). Tab name [Source]. Retrieved date, from URL

University of Sheffield Library [uniSheffieldLib]. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.youtube.com/user/uniSheffieldLib

Radiohead. (n.d.). Videos [YouTube channel]. Retrieved August 14, 2020 from https://www.youtube.com/c/Radiohead/videos

Notes

If the account name is an individual and their real name is known, use their real name in the citation and include their real name in the reference followed by their channel name in square brackets, e.g. Author Surname, Initial(s). [Screen name]. If they only have a screen name, use this without the brackets in both the citation and reference in place of the author.

The Home tab is the default tab on YouTube. If you want to reference a different tab, use the name of that tab in the channel reference, e.g. Videos, Playlists.

Include a retrieval date in the channel reference as the content is designed to change or update over time.

For more information about in–text citation and referencing multiple authors, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

"Use the webpages and websites category if there is no other reference category that fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g. journal, blog, conference proceedings) other than the website itself."
(APA, 2020, p. 350)

In the text

For an in-text citation, you should cite the author. If the author is an organisation, you should use the name of the organisation the first time you cite the resource with the recognised abbreviation next to it in square brackets:

Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE] (2016)...
...(Higher Education Funding Council for England [HEFCE], 2016)

When you cite the resource for the second time onwards, you should use the abbreviation of the name:

HEFCE (2016)...
(HEFCE, 2016)

In the bibliography/reference list
Webpage on a news website

Author Surname, Initials. (Date Year, Month day). Title of webpage. Site name. URL

Binding, L. (2020, July 21). River Thames has higher density of microplastics than other major European rivers. Sky News. https://news.sky.com/story/river-thames-has-higher-density-of-microplastics-than-other-major-european-rivers-12033067

Webpage on a website with a group author

Name of organisation. (Date Year, Month day). Title of webpage. Site name (if not the same as the Name of organisation). URL

World Health Organisation. (2018, May 18). Assistive technology. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/assistive-technology

Webpage on a website with a government agency group author

Author Surname, Initials or Organisation. (Date Year, Month day). Title of webpage. Name of government agency (if not the same as the Author or Organisation). URL

Department of Health and Social Care. (2017, January 20). Health, exercise, nutrition for the really young (HENRY). https://www.gov.uk/government/case-studies/health-exercise-nutrition-for-the-really-young-henry

Webpage on a website with an individual author

Author Surname, Initials. (Date Year, Month day). Title of webpage. Site name. URL

Austin, B. (2018, November 19). Memory Cafés Connect Families. Medium. https://medium.com/everylibrary/memory-caf%C3%A9s-connect-families-825df125e9a6

Notes

Provide as specific a date as possible, e.g. Year, Month day or Year, Month, or Year if you can only find the year.

Include the retrieval date if the material is likely to change over time, or if there is no date on the web page.

Locating the date of a website and webpages can be difficult, the page you are looking at may tell you at the beginning or the end of the page or document. Do not use the footer that says ‘Last modified’ as it may not be the update for the page or document. Do not use the copyright date from a webpage or website footer as this may not indicate when the content was published. If you cannot locate a date, use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’.

If the author and the site name are the same, e.g. in the "Webpage on a website with a group author" example, omit the site name from the reference as it is the same as the author, World Health Organisation.

If the name of the corporation/agency/government agency is long or well known by an abbreviation, for the first time you cite the resource write out the name in full followed by the abbreviation in square brackets, then use just the abbreviation for second and further citations, e.g. (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], 2016) or National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE], (2016). The second and further citations would then read (NICE, 2016) or NICE (2016).

If the corporation/association/government agency has a short named, or an abbreviation that would not be easily understandable, then you would use the full name in all citations, e.g. (University of Sheffield, 2016) or University of Sheffield (2016).

For more information about in-text citation, referencing multiple authors and abbreviations, see Creating a citation and reference list and click on the relevant section.

If you are not citing specific information or a specific page from a website you do not need to create an in-text citation or a reference for it.

When mentioning a website within your text, provide the name of the website followed by the URL in parentheses, e.g.

Participants were surveyed using SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.co.uk).

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